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By Henry Dor& 9 S.J. 


By D.J. Finn, S.J. 

Second Part 


Profusely illustrated 

Vol. IX 





lunnr M r.HlNA 

JyULriv^ c 


Gettysburg College 

Gettysburg, Pa. 


Gift of 
Dr. Frank H. Kramer 

Accession 10Li.)|91 

BS721.D72 v. 9 



By Henpy Dore, S.J. 



By D.J. Finn, S.J. 

Second Part 

Profusely illustrated 

Vol. IX 






Contents I 

List of illustrations VII 

Preface XI 

Immortal Gods, Genii 


Article I Yuen Shi Tien Tsun (T) (1) 

The Eternal 1-3 

The legend of Yuen Shi T'ien wang. ... 4-5 

Appendix — The genealogy of Taoism 6-8 

Article II Yuh-hwang, The August (Jade) Emperor 

The modern Jupiter. 

I. Yuh-hwang in legend 9-10 

II. Yuh-hwang in actual history 10-12 

III. Honorific titles conferred on Yuh-hwang.... 12-16 

Article III T'ung-T'ien-Kiao-Chu (T) 17-18 

(1) (T) means that the temples of the divinity to which this letter 
is affixed are kept by Taoist priests. 

(T. B.) that they are kept by Budhist priests also. 
When the letter B. and C. are alone without ( ), they are meant to 
show that the divinity is also honoured by Budhists and, or Confiucianists. 

— II — 

Article VI 



Article IV Hung- Kiun-Tao- Jen (T) 19 

Article V Hiien-Tien-Shang Ti ^T B) 

The sovereign of The Gloomy skies. 

Muh-Kung and Kin-mu (T) 

The god of the immortals and his Consort 

Preliminary notions 

Tung-wang -kung 


VII The eight Immortals, Pah-sien (T) B.C. 

List of eight immortals ... 

Classification and distinctive features 

Han chung-li 






Ho sien-ku 


Li of The Eight hundreds — Yung C'heng- 
Tung-Chung-shu — Yeu-Kiiin-ping — Fan 

Chang shen — Ko-Yung-kwei 60-62 

General Conclusion 63 

Article VIII Liu-hai-sien (T.B.) C 
The immortal Liu-hai. 

I. Name and Legend 64-65 

II. An Apparitionof Liu-hai 66-68 

Article IX Chang-tao-ling (T) 

I. Chang-Tao-ling, according to the Taoist Book 

and Works of other writers. ... . 69-76 

II. Chang-Tao-ling in history 76-79 

III. Chang-Tao-ling according to the Histories of 

the Three Kingdoms. — Origin of the 

title "Tien shi" ~H gjjj (Heaven-Teacher) 79-86 




. 31-34 


. 36-37 









Ill — 

Appendix — Cult of Wang Chang 87 

Article X Hii-chen-kiiin (TB) C 88-91 

Site of the well and cave occpied by the 

Dragon that Hii-sun overcome 91-94 

Article XI Sz-ta-T'ien-wang (BT) 95-97 

Article XII T'ai-yih (T) 

The great One 99-100 

(1) T'ai yih : the Sovereign of the Five 

Heavenly Emperors 100 

(2) T'ai yih. Cosmic Matter before its 

dispersion 100-101 

(3) T'ai yih. Three and One 101 

(4) T'ai yih. An unknown spirit 101 

(5) T'ai yih. Spirit of the Pole Star 101 

(6) T'ai yih. Spirit of the First of the Nine 
Constellations 101-102 

(7) The Ten T'ai yih Spirits 102-104 

(8) Tai-Yih- Chen- Jen i: Zl M A 104 

Artitle XIII Shin-Rh-Ting-Kiah-Shen (T) 

The twelve Ting-Kiah spirits of Taoism. ... 105 

The Six Ting Spirits ("J") 105 

The Six Kiah Spirits (Ef3) 105-1 6 

Article XIV The Dipper Mother — Teu-mu (BT). . 107-109 
Arrangement of Hall dedicated to Teu-mu 110 

Article XV Na-ch'a-san-t'ai-tsze (T B) 111-121 

Article XVI Heng-Hoh-Rh-Tsiang (BT) 

Marshals "Sniffer" and "Blower" 123-124 

Article XVII Ts'ing-lung, Peh-hu (T) 125-127 

Article XVIII Kwan-k'eu-shen and Rh-lang-shen (BT) 128 

I. Such facts as seem to rest on historic basis J 28-129 

II. The Embroidery of Legend 129-130 

HI. Cult 130-132 

Article XIX. Wang-ling-kwang and Sah-sheu-kien (BT) C 

— IV — 

I. Wang-lin-kwan. i f$ ll" 133-135 

II. Sa-chen-jen. $| ^ A 136-138 

Article XX Chen yuan the Immortal (Sien) (T) 139 
Article XXI Lieh-Tsze. (T) 140-141 

Appendix — The historical Lieh-Tsze and 
his works. 

I. The author. 

II. His Works. 

III. His Doctrine. (T) 142-145 

Article XXII Nan-Hwa-Chwang-Sheng 

Chwang-Tsze. Author of The "Nan-hwa- 

king." 145-146 

T'ao-chow-kung's son (^^^) is condemned. 147-149 
Appendix — The historical Chwang-Tsze Ui 1 an d 

his work 150-153 

I. The man. 

II. His work. 

III. His Doctrine. 

Article XXIII Hwai nan tsze (T) 

The sage from The south of The Hwai River— 145-157 
Appendix — Historical notes 

I. The Literary School of Hwai-nan-tsze 7f£ ^ -^ 

II. The works of Hwai-nan-tsze 158-159 

Article XXIV Wang-yuen-shwai (T) 

Generalissimo Wang 160-161 

Article XXV Sie-t'ien-kiiin (T) B 

Sie the Heavenly Leader 162-K3 

Article XXVI Hwun-ki-p'ang-yuen-shwai (T B) 

Generalissimo P'ang 164-165 

Article XXVII Li-yuen-shwai (T) 

Generalissimo Li 166-167 

Article XXVIII Liu-t'ien-kiun 

Liu, The Heaveanlv Chief 168 

— V — 

Article XXIX Wang Kao Rh yuan shwai (T) 

The Two Generalissimos, Wang and Kao ... 196 

Article XXX T'ien-hwai-pih yuan shwai 

Generalissimo T'ien hwa-pih 170-171 

Article XXXI T'ien yii yuan shwai (T) 

The Generalissimo "Field Rain." 172-173 

Article XXXII Tang yuan shwai [T) 

Generalissimo Tang 174 

Article XXXIII Shih yuan shwai (T) 

Generalissimo Shih 175 

Article XXXIV Fu-ying-yuan-shwai (T) B 

Generalissimo Fu-ying 167-177 

Article XXXV Yang yuan shwai (T) B 

Generalissimo Yang 178 

Article XXXVI Kao yuan shwai (B T) 

Generalissimo Kao (a faultless healer) 179-180 

Article XXXVII Ohang-yuan-shwai (T B) 

Generalissimo Chang, Averter of The 

Small-pox 181 

Article XXXVIII Sin-hing, keu yuan shwai (T) C 

(Thunder Department) 182-183 

Article XXXIX Tie yuan shwai (T) B 184 

Article XL K'ang-yuan-shwai (T B) 

Generalissimo K'ang 185 

Article XLI Mung yuan shwai (The Merciful) (T)B 186-187 

Article XLII Fung-hwo-yuan T'ien yuan shwai (T) 
Generalissimo T'ien (of the Wind and 
Fire Ministry) 188-189 

Article XLIII Hiu-Li-hu-Sien (T) 

The Genii of The Nine Carp Lake 190-191 

Article XLIV Wang-Shi-Ch'en. (T) ,..192. 

— VI — 

Article XLV Lii-Shan- K'wang-Feu Sien-Sheng (T) 

Master K'wang-Feu of Mt. Lii 193-194 

Article XLVI Hwang-Sien-Shi (T) 

I J wang the Immortal 195 

Article XLVII Peh-Kih-K'u-Sie-yuan (T) 

Executive of North Pole exorcisms 196-198 

Article XLVIII Peh-hoh-T'ung Tsze (T) 

The White Crane Boy 199-200 

Article XLIX Yang-sze-tsiang-kiiin (T B) 

Generalissimo Yang Sze 201 

Article L Chih-Kioh Sien (T) 

The Bare Foot Immortal 202-203 

Article LI Wen-yuan-shwai (T B) 

Generalissimo Wen 204-206 

Article LII Ts'ien-li-yen Shun fung-rh (T B) 

Thousand li Eye and Fair wind Ear 207-209 

Article LIII Kiangtszeya (B T) C 210-215 

Article LIV San Mao (B T) 

The three Mao brothers 216-218 

Article LV Kin-K'eii-shang-ti and Yuh-K'eii-shang-ti 

(T B) 219 

Article LVI Wu-lao 

The live Ancient of days 220-221 

Article LVII Some Immortals, better known or more 

honoured 222-225 

Article LVIII The usual grouping of "Saints" in Taoist 

Temples. 226-227 



No Page 

131. Yuen shi T'ien-tsun 2 

132. Yuh-hwang, the Pearly Emperor 10 

133. T'ung-t'ien Kiao-chu 18 

134. Hung kiun Lao-tze (the Great Potter), holding in his 

hand the three pills which he gave to Lao-tze, Yuen- 

shi t'ien tsun and T'ung-t'ien kiao-chu 19 

135. Chen-wu after his victory 20 

The tortoise and the serpent lay at his feet. 

136. Chen-wu, holding in his hand his rolled up flag 22 

137. The Goddess Si-wang-mu (the Western Royal Mother) 30 

138. Tung-wang kung and Si-wang-mu. The king and 

queen of the Immortals 32 

139. Excess in the cups among the Immortals 36 

140. The eight Immortals at their awaking 38 

141. Han Chung-li 40 

142. Lu Tung-pin on Kwei-sing's kraken 42 

143. Chang Kwo-lao 44 

144. Lan T'sai hwo 46 

145. Han Siang-tze 48 

146. Ts'ao Kwoh- kiu 52 

147. The Fairy Lady, Ho 56 

148. T'ieh-kwai Li 58 

149. Lu Tung-pin. Han Chung-li 60 

150. The Fairy Goddess Ho. Chang-kwo-lao 60 

151. Lan Ts'ai-hwo. Tsao Kwoh-kiu 62 

152. T'ieh Kwai-li. Han Siang-tze 62 

153. The Immortal Liu-hai. This picture is affixed in 

families as a protective and luckbearing talisman ... 66 

154. Chang T'ien-shi and his insignia. Picture known as 

that of ''the five venomous animals" 80 

155. Hsii the Immortal, travelling on the lakes 88 

- VIII — 

No Page 

156. Li, the tower-bearer 96 

157. Ma, the heavenly king 96 

158. Chao, the heavenly king 98 

159. Wen, the heavenly king 98 

160. T'ai-yih Chen-jen. 100 

161. Teu-mu .108 

162. Na-to San-t'ai-tze 112 

163. Heng-hah. The blowing and sniffing Taoist Monk. ...124 

164. The God of the Blue Dragon star— Cheng Kiu-kung 

(in the Yuh-hwang Monastery) 126 

165. The God of the White Tiger star. Ying Ch'eng-siu 

(In the Hwang Monastery) 126 

166. Eul-lang 128 

167. Wang-ling-kwan (In a monastery at T'ung Chow). . 134 

168. Sah Chen-jen and the God of the city moat coming 

out of the water 136 

169. The Immortal Chen-yuan 138 

170. Lieh-tse 140 

171. Hwai-nan-tse 146 

172. Generalissimo W r ang 154 

173. Nan-hwa Chwang-sheng (Chwang-tze) 160 

174. Sieh, the heavenly leader 162 

175. The Generalissimo Hwun-k'i-pang 164 

176. Generalissimo Li 166 

177. Liu, the heavenly leader 168 

178. The two Generalissimos, Kao and Wang 169 

179. The Generalissimo Tien hwa-pih 170 

180. Tien-yu Yuan-shwai (Generalissimo Tien-yu) 172 

181. Generalissimo Tang 174 

182. Generalissimo Shih 175 

183. Generalissimo Fu-ying 176 

184. Generalissimo Yang and his military attendant. ... 178 

185. Generalissimo Kao, the peerless doctor 180 

186. Generalissimo Chang, who protects from smallpox. . 180 


Ko Page 

187. Generalissimo T'ieh 184 

188. Generalissimo K'ang 184 

189. Generalissimo Meng 186 

190. The three Brothers Musicians 188 

191. Wang-shi-ch'en raises a flood in the Yellow River. ...192 

192. The teacher Kw'ang-feu of Lu-shan, and his eldest 

brother Kw'ang-suh 194 

193. Hwang the Immortal, writer of magic charms 194 

194. Yen Chen-k'ing, canonised, first officer of the Ministry 

that exorcises the North Pole 196 

195. The divining youth Peh-hoh (White Crane) 200 

196. General Yang-sze 201 

197. Generalissimo Wen 204 

198. Ts'ien-li-yen. Shun-fung-eul 108 

199 210 

200. Written charm burnt in honour of the Three Princes 

San Mao. ... 216 

201. The Three Princes San Mao . 216 

202. Kin-k'ueh Shangti and Yuh-k'ueh Shangti 219 

203—204-205—206. The Four Patrons of Longevity (Another 

manner of representing them) 220 



Fr. Kennelly, the translator of the first eight volumes of Fr. 
Dore's monumental work, has laid down his pen and gone to the 
sure reward of his labours. Another comes to resume the task 
though less qualified and confessedly incapable of adding learned, 
succinct notes called from such wide reading as distinguished 
Fr. Kennelly's work. The present translator must therefore 
confine himself to giving a faithful rendering of the French text. 
Such petty changes as he has made are not distinguished, because 
Fr. Dore is happily with us still and has reviewed these few 
alterations: still better, he has himself added considerable new 
matter to Articles I, VII, IX, XXI, XXII, XXIV and LVII. 
The translator adds this preface in the hope of helping the 
reader to an orientation amid such masses of material and also 
to appreciation of some features of the book which otherwise 
might escape notice. 

The volume treats of the contribution made by Taoist 
to the Chinese Pantheon, namely, those worthies, heroes, spirits 
"demons" (in its Greek sense), quasi-divinities or even such 
supreme celestial rulers as have connexions rather with Taoism 
than with Buddhism or Confucianism. Of course the traces of 
the working principle "The Three Beliefs are One" ■§§ fp M H 
■fHf 3$ -— " are evident again and again and Fr. Dore has given 
a hint at the head of each article by the use of the letters T 
(Taoist), B (Buddhist). C (Confucian). 

This volume is not an account of Taoism in its historical 
development in China. That is to come later in a volume, now 
under Fr. Dore's pen, which will deal with Lao-tsze's life, legend 
and doctrine. The text and illustrations of this volume re- 
present those who beside Lao-tsze claim veneration or worship 

— XII — 

from the Taoists or the eclectics of to-day — or yesterday. (1) 
It is therefore a pudding-stone conglomerate of fact and fiction 
history and myth under formative influences streaming in from 
Buddhism, Confucianism and even a primitive magic (a fourth 
"religion" that is not officially counted in China but has been 
most potent). 

A few word about Lao-tsze will help the purpose of this 
preface. To understand his appearances in this book, we must 
make a dichotomy: there is the Lao-tsze of legend, a magician, 
a divinity and there is the Lao-tsze of history. As a historical 
personage, he is as recent as the battle of Marathon — for 
he seems to have died in that same year 490 B. C. and he 
was probably the author of the doctrinal treatise the Tao-Teh- 
King jff ^§ $£. As a mythical personage, he left China for 
regions beyond the Western Passes in 1030 B.C.. that is in the 
early year of the Chow Mj Dynasty which he had helped with 
his magic to establish itself: he had taken a leading part in 
warring down all those other demons, and thaumaturgs who 
supported the Shang tyrant. This latter Lao-tsze may be found 
for example in Articles III, XLV and LIII. This is the 
Lao-tsze who reigns in the Third (Lowest) Heaven, the T'ai 
Ts'ing ^ ^, among the Immortals f[Jj. 

The historical Lao-tsze gave the initial impulse to a 
school of philosophy that produced Li eh tsze and Chwang tsze in 
the fifth century B. C. and Hwai-nan-tsze in the second (see 
Articles XXI, XXII, XXIV below). This is the Taoism that 
could claim to be a philosophy — cosmology, metaphysics and 
ethics — though always very obscure and tending to esoteric 
mysticism; in fact, some hold that its sources are to be found 
farther back and probably outside China altogether, Lao-tsze 
then being to this foreign thought what Confucius was to the 
traditions of the earlier Chow. The classic of Taoism is the 
Tao-Teh-King (the Book of the Principle and of its Action) ; 

(1) See note at end of preface. 

— XIII — 

after two millennia of existence, it has recently been recognized 
to be a book of verse. It records for us Lao-tsze's thought if 
not his actual writing: it is vague and difficult in the extreme. 
It centres about an Absolute, a monist principle that demands 
the identification in itself of all contraries. It postulates in man 
pii attitude of quietism, of Non-interference (4te ^). The book 
is prolific of obscurities. The reader will find in Articles XXI, 
XXII, the same doctrines as developed by the later writers. 

But far from remaining a difficult monistic philosophy 
with mystic elements, Taoism developed or absorbed a ritual, a 
Pantheon and an eschatology, that borrowed from and at times 
lent to Buddhism. Taoism now presents a whole arsenal of magic 
devices (see the charms explained in Vol. Ill — English edition— 
Vol. V of the French: those spells are in the main Taoistic), 
these probably being an inheritance from an earlier strain of 
Chinese religion, witness the importance attached to Kiang 
Tsze-ya and the Eight Diagrams as well as the attachment to a 
style of "rebus" writing that is reminiscent of the earlier 
bronzes of Shang or Chow. 

To this type of Taoism belongs the Triad of Divinities — 
said to be merely a twofold repetition of Lao-tsze — which is 
worth studying in Vol. VI. As a guide to the hierarchy of 
Taoism into which one must fit the personages described in this 
volume, the author's table of this Taoist Triad is reproduced 
here :— 

I. Highest Heaven: Yuh ts'ing: 3T fjif (Jade Pure) 

RULER: T'ien pao: [Yuan-shi T'ien-tsun( Article I) or 
3^ Hf [Yuh-hwang (Article II) 

POPULATION : The Saints m A 

II. Middle Heaven: Shang Ts'ing J^ f| (Upper Pure) 

RULER: Ling pao T'ien tsun: Tao-kiun jtf J*" 
POPULATION: the Heroes ^A (who have attained 
perfect rule over Nature). 

— XIV — 
III. Lowest Heaven: T'ai Ts'ing -fc fjlf (Great Pure) 
RULER : Shen Rao jjtijj ^f Lao Kiiin % 3* 

POPULATION: the Immortals f[[j A (i. e. human 
souls endowed with divine powers. The most numerous class.) 

The personages described in this volume are supposed to 
have places in this hierarchy consisting of some 800 "deified" 
Taoists. After Articles XV below a term "Generalissimo" is to 
be found frequently in the headings : the reason is obvious : as the 
Chinese Heavens are the prototype (to be understood as "copy") 
of the Chinese realm, there must be there a corps of Heavenly 
Officers, in fact 26 in number, Na-ch'a (Article XV) is their 
Marshal and Wang Ling-kwan (Art. XIX) is the first in dignity. 

A classification and study of all these personages would 
be of interest but would take too much space here. As a guide 
which the reader may wish to follow up for himself the following 
division by periods may be of use: 

1. A completely mythical period: Articles I, II, IV, VI, XI, 

2. The period of the wars of the Chow dynasty against the 
Sitting (1122 B.C.) : this seems to be regarded as the emergence 
of Taoism from myth to history: a kind of "epic" moment: see 
Articles III, V, XV (Really a borrowing from Buddhism) : XVI, 
XVII, XXXIX (a Chinese Herakles), XLVIII, LII, LIII. This 
period apparently condensed myths in itself: it attracts both 
from the earlier and the later periods; e. g. LII seems to be pure 
myth, XV is one who first come in the train of Buddha whereas 
LIII historically belongs this period. 

3. The Chow Dynasty (1122 B.C. -255 B.C.) XXI, XXII, 
XXIX, XXXIII, XLI, XLV (a pupil of Lao Tsze) LVII (the 
philosopher Mill Tsze.) 

4. The Ts'in (255 B.C.- 206 B. C.) : XVIII, LIV. 

— XV — 

5. The Han (206 B.C. -220 A. D.) : IX (the very impor- 
tant Chang T'ien-shi), XXIV (Hwai-nan-tsze), XXVI, XXXV, 
XLIII (9 Carp-Lake Immortals), LI, (LIV), LVII (Chang 
liang). The period is typical for magic Taoism. 

6. The E & W Tsin 265 — 420 A. D. : X and XXVIII. 

7. Sui (590 — 618 A. D. ) and T'ang Dynasties. (618 — 907 
A. D.) XVIII; VII (The Eight Immortals except Ts'ao) : 
of these personages have human traits. 

(7 a) LV and VIII belong to the transition (disorders) period. 

8. The Bung (960 — 1228 A. D.) (One of the Eight Immor- 
tals in VII) ; XIX, XXXII, XLIV, L. 

Looking at this panorama, one might count the first and 
second periods as a back-ground of hazy lights, the eight is the 
immediate fore-ground, (almost the view-point) ; the fifth is the 
centre of interest where imagination works on definite details — 
the seventh is close up to distinct vision where as the third 
tends to fade away into mythical obscurity. That is, by the end 
of the Sang dynasty, Taoism had settled down — its active 
formation was going on in the Han period. 

The legends of "Eight Hundred" Li (in Article VII ^ A 
"§"), of Lieh Tsze (Article XXI) and of THen-hwa (Article XXX) 
present in themselves a sliding about of dates that may have 
taken place unrecorded in many other cases. 

Many of these tales have a human interest — and as 
samples one might recommend Chwang-tsze and his wife (Article 
XXIV) or Mong the sympathetic (Article XLI), or that of the 
friends Wang and Kao (Article XXIX). For the magic of fairy 
tables, there is the story of Na-ch'a (Article XV) or of the Nine 
Brothers (Article XLIII) or of "Television and Listener-in" 
(Article LII). 

As this preface is intended to be the showman for the 
production, I must not forget to recommend the display of illur- 

— XVI — 

trations. Considered in themselves, they form a very album of 
••ri alier" — fast becoming rare antiquities. 

First, the style of head-dress in the various pictures 
deserves attention : there is the hat of state mien j| distinguished 
by its pearl strings liu $&, its slanting flat top Ping $£, the 
dragon-head and tail projecting at the sides (Fig. 132) ; there is 
the Chung-tsing kwan $ 1$ %£ of a soft material (leather: cf. |$ 
^f-) put together with raised ridges which Avere then decorated 
with gold, pearls etc (Fig. 182) : there is the hat of the ministers 
and scholars, puh-t'eu ^ ||j (e. g. Fig. 192 as for the H ^ ; or 
Fig. 155, 190 as for scholars > l |ic £); Fig. 173 seems to be the 
shun i) an g kin $i(J ]^ [jl> often now regarded as worn specially 
by Taoists. For the greatest part the other hats worn are like 
the puh-t'eu but with the projecting "feet" turned up into horns 
at the back. Then there are the helmets ^ of which Figg. 156,- 
159 and Figg. 168, Tj6, present various forms. Many other 
figures carry the head-ornament that gathers the hair within a 
little case or cap admitting of various forms of decoration. Figg. 
133 and 199 are representative. Once (Fig. 144) we have the 
out-door hat for sun and rain popularly called a "Gong" hat $$ 
g£ |]j|. Among the women's head-gear, Fig. 138 is noteworthy 
for the ingenious touch by which the "phoenix" (Ht or ^) of 
Fig. 137 becomes an ornament in Si-wany-mu's hair. 

Among the implements or symbols to be noted, the most 
important is the #fl jp| Jii-i, a sceptre originally associated with 
Buddhism as one of its seven Precious Jewels. Yuan shi T'ien 
tsun carries it in Fig. 131. In Figg. 132, 138, 201, we have 
examples of the tablets that were part of the ceremonies of 
imperial audience or of office as tokens of investiture jj$ ^, f£; 
or jJtj; on Fig. 132, we see a constellation token, one of the twelve 
symbols Ip: on the Emperor's tablet, as the next highest nobles had 
only nine symbols omitting the sun, moon and constellation, this 
figure denotes an emperor). On Fig. 133, 139 etc. 173 there is 
the yak's tail, $| H Chu-wei, a symbol of conversationalists 
(leaders of the herd by the constant wagging of their tongues) 

-XVII - 

and of the command not to kill living things. There is a "star 
flag" in Figg. 135 and 136 of which the unwrapping will cause 
rain J^ j| $t. In fig. 190 Kiang holds a flag (^ % $j£) that 
can flick all demons away (as a charm fy) and a staff (fj* jji^ 
$$j) of use against demons. Wang Ling-kwan (Fig. 167) carries one 
of "nine joints" X tp Wl Hwang (Fig. 193) holds a charm, as will 
be easily recognized by those who have read Vol III (English 
edition). — the characters ^jj ^ are the inevitable formula of 
command over the spirits. The instrument carried by Chang 
Kwoh-lao (Figg. 143 and 150) was described for me by a 
Cantonese as $, (or^p) ~£ ffi, but he could give no further 
explanation except that it was some magical apparatus consisting 
of a tongs-like thing in a case. The fans in Fig. 190 are for 
the purposes of the magic control of "wind and fire," that is 
the meteorological elements J^ »X. ( tne wheels in 162, 174, 179 
are called "wind-fire wheels"). 

Armour can be seen to advantage in Fig. 159 where one 
can distinguish clearly the three pieces — shoulders, trunk and 
legs: this division seems to be followed in the leaf-cape, leaf- 
girdle and the trousers of Na-ch'a (Fig. 162). Fig. 152 carries a 
pretty specimen of the "Wolf-tooth banner" — a battle-mace. In 
other pictures, one may find the weapons known as ^ (Fig. 
185) Jf (Fig. 182), = % (Fig. 184). In Fig. 156, a Chinese eye 
notices at once the left arm covered with civilian dress and the 
right exposed in armour as the mark of very high army rank : Li 
is higher in rank than the other three. 

Doubtless the Pah-kwa will be familiar to all readers. 
If not, I must refer them to Mayers: Chinese Reader's Manual Part 
II N° 241 or to Vol II of this present work p. 223. There 
diagrams are to be found in figg. 153, 154, 199 below : and it 
should be noted that fig. 153 presents the arrangement known as 
$k Ji whereas fig. 199 shows the $£ ^ scheme (though one 
might have expected that Kiang would rather have the arrange- 
ment attributed to Wen-wang). In Figg. 153 and 199 the Pah- 


kwa as it were nail down the good-luck 7k |ft ^ -^c- An explana- 
tion of all the characters on Fig. 153 would be too long, but we 
may note that the use of black and red in the "Twelve Branches" 
indicates those figures that are "opposed" or "congruent' '. 

A few pictures call for special notice. The children in 
Figg. 169 and 185 seem to refer to help in child-birth from these 
beings. The "generalissimos" as a whole are supposed to 
indicate in Chinese calenders whether weather phenomena in 
the year over which they individually preside will be mild : you 
judge by the general look of the picture: if the year's special 
Generalissimo is fierce, the thunder will be dreadful. In the 
series 141-148, there is reference to a combat in which the Eight 
Immortals overcame the sea-monsters, subjects of Lung-ivang. 
In Fig. 177, the bats emanating from Liu's breath probably refer 
to his potency in calling upon the rains (cf. Vol. VII Fig. 107). 
Fig. 154 seems to be specially aimed at enticing wealth to come 
the user's way. The black tiger is a wealth emblem and beneath 
his feet are objects that are usually to be found in the Chinese 
cornucopia ^ ^ & (see Vol XI. figg. 272, 275, 276: Vol. V. figg. 
201, 215; also Vol. VII fig. 90 where frogs, turtles are bringing 
offerings of valuables to Si-wang-mu) : i. e. the twin coins under 
the tiger's left fore-leg, the "fiery-pearl" under his right hind-leg 
and a pair objects (identified by some as horns that startles the 
heavens) under the left: this latter object also is out of the 
cornucopia's store: the tiger's right fore-leg laises the "Seal of 
the Heaven-master" (the imprint being Blessing, come: away,, 
malign!"). Health (the chasing of the venomous animals) and 
wealth would be secured by the presence of "Heaven's-master, 
the Hero of the Dragon-Tiger Mountain." (Cf. Vol. 1 p. 224). 

With these indications, the allusiveness of the plates is 
not by any means exhausted nor their value as illustrations of 
antiquities and culture. But at first sight this interest might 
seem to be altogether absent from productions for the most part 
so crude when judged as art. 

— XIX — 

With this, we must close a preface that has grown too 
long and allow the reader to enjoy Fr. Dore's fullness. Below 
a note is added to set on record here the official attitude of the 
New China to all that forms the matter of these volumes. 

Canton 29th Sept. 1930 

Feast of St. Michael the Archangel. 

Note. Temples regarded as worthy or unworthy of official recogni- 

A decree of the Government of Nanking (Home office) relative to 
the preservation or destruction of temples was published in the Shi-pao ff£ 
$J 23rd. Nov, 1928. 

It divides temples into two classes. 

I. Those to be kept up. 

of (A) #; HT $g; sages and worthies of preceding ages; Fuh-lii {% || 
(Vol. X.); Shen Nung jpiji Jft (Vol. X.) Hwang-ti !ar ifr (Vol. X.); Lei Tsui^m. 
(first rearer of silk-worms cf. Vol. XI); Ts'ang Hieh # fig (inventor of 
writing); Heutsih }§ fg (harvest-patron); The Great Yii ^ ^ (the 
irrigator): Confucius : Mencius ; Rung Shu-pan £• $g $£ (Vol. XI): Kican Yii 
U Vi (Vol. VI, XII); Yoh-Fei |& ffi. (Vol. XII). 

of (B) g2 fft ^ : religions teaching theism with pure and right inten- 
tion: credence is admissible. 

a) Polytheistic religiors £ jjjiji ffc: of Salcyamuni and of Lao-tsze. 

b) Monotheistic: Mahometanism and Christianity JJ|$ Ufa 

II. Temples to be suppressed. 

A - "S" jpfe ffc: in which purely legendary personages are worshipped 
with no practical utility whatever. 

1. Temples of Stellar Spirits: sun, moon etc. (Vol. XII), Fire-spirit 
Hwo-shen >\ # (Vol. X); Kweising & M and Wen cli'ang % g (Vol. VI); 
cult of the battle-flag ffi &' J§j. 

2. Genii of the mountains, rivers, earth; The 5 Holy Peaks: The 4 
Rivers jjf: River Spirits (Vol. X). T'ai-shan ill (Vol. XI), Tungyoh 
Ta-ti )g & jz iff, The Dragon-kings gg 2 (Vol. VII). Ch'eng-hwang i$ |g 
(Vol. XI). T'u-ti ± flfe and A t£ (Vol. X), the Hearth God fct jp$ (Vol. XI). 

— XX — 

3. The Ministry of Thunder etc. (Vol. X). 

B. j^^l $${: Temples offending against public morality e.g. by playing on 
credulity of people for gain etc. Temples of Chang sicn 3g f|I| (Vol. XI): 
Sung-tsseniangniang i£ -f- M j& (Vol. I): Ts'ai sftengf jjiiji (Vol. XI); Rh lung 
Z. f$ (Vol. IX), Ts'i-t'ien-ta-shcng ^ ^ ^ ^ (the Monkey Sun Eeu-tsse & 
fl£ -^ (Vol. V); 7T>?i Sfien }f. # ("Vol. X); Hiien-t'an ;£ £g (god of riches Vol. 
V. XI); Shi Ts'icn fc£ ;g (Vol. XI); Eu-sien (fox-spirit Vol. V). A Cantonese 
paper of 24 9 30 adds the assurance that Chinese cultivate a "religion"^ 
f£ free from superstition-superior to all these classes-under the name of 
%$ ^ i.e. the devotion to the ethical relations of the ^ $$: ruler and 
ruler: father and son: husband and -wife: and the culture of the jg. ffi viz. 
•fc (benevolence) ^ (justice? right) jji (propriety), $? (wisdom), ff 


(if \ii — = 



(TAOISM) (1) 


YUEN Silt T'lEN TSUN JC jta JR. 


Yuen Shi T'ien Tsun, the First Principle, His Heavenly 
Excellency, is a Taoist god often described as the first person 
in the Taoist triad. This personage has never had an existence; 
name, origin and function are pure inventions of Lao-tze's 
followers. According to them, Yuen Shi T'ien Tsun owns no 
beginning, no over-lord, but is himself the principle of all 
things; hence the name Yuen Shi, First principle. 

(1) (for Lao-tse: see Part III) 


Thus the Taoist teaching represents him as first member 
of the heavenly Triad, sovereign ruler of the third heaven, the 
Yuh-ts'ing 3£ f^, abode of the saints IS A ; ne is enthroned 
above all the heavens. (1) 

The author of the Sui shu king tsih chi (5^ # $g |g & 
provides him with surname and name: "Loll ising-sin" ^| fjfi '$=, 
The description then goes on : he was born before all beginning, 
his substance is indestrucible, it is formed essentially of air 
increated, self-existent, invisible, limitless. Xo one has been 
able to trace back the beginning of his existence. He it is who, 
source of all truth, teaches at each revolution of the spheres (at 
each new Kalpa) the mysterious doctrine that confers immor- 
tality. Ail who arrive at this knlowedge mount step by step to 
everlasting life refine themselves like spirits and in the full light 
of clay turn into Immortals. (2) 

The Taoist adepts had to set up a rival to the Buddhist 
triad: not to be beaten in the display of the marvellous, they 
found two personages to partner their Lao-tze. Thus they 
erected thrones for Yuen Shi T'ien-tsun and Tao-Kiin, jjf ;g", in 
the two highest of their three heavens. So, Yuen Shi T'ien-tsun 
was installed in the first heaven, the (Jade) Yuh-ts'ing 3£ fpf 
and Tao-Kiin in the second (Superior) Shang-ts'ing J^ ffi while 
Lao-tze occupied the throne in the third heaven T'ai-ts'ing -Jx, fjif. 

In modern times, the actual highest sovereignty is in 
dispute between Yuh-hwang 3£ Jl and Yuen-shi T'ien-tsun. The 
temples it is true, usually honour the latter as the first person 
of the Taoist triad but actually the supreme governance of the 
universe is assigned to the former, the August (Jade) Emperor. 

Cf. the book: T'ai yuen clicn yih pen tsi Icing: % jt jR £, # [It? $g 

(2) (Book 35 p. 17,19) Hf ff£ Soei-Shi. 

(3) Cf. Tuh shu hi shu lioh |f ^ £[} ®f § Book 43 p. 2. 

(4) See schema of Taoist Heavens in Vol VI above p. 9 (French edition) 

Fig. 131 


Yuen che t'ien tsuen 
Yuan ski 7''ien-tsun. 


Yuen-shi T'ien-tsun cannot have been always part of the 
Taoist Triad : his primal place was above the three Heavens, 
above the three Pure Ones, he was superior to all upheavals or 
renewals of the universe. Like a rock unshaken amid the fury 
of storms, this god knowing no beginning, no end, no change 
existed through all the cosmic revolutions, seeing the storms of 
ruin expend themselves impotent at his feet. Yet he can keep 
count of the works good or evil of each family by the help of 
the hearth god, his faithful Chief of Secret Service, Tsao-kiin f|| 
j£ ; and for an executive officer of justice he commands the 
service of the President of the Thunder Department Lei-tsu f[f |£ 
and his staff. His ministers have heavenly palaces in the seven 
Stars of the North Pole while their establishments on earth are 
on the Sacred Peak of the East and other holy mountains. This 
is the theory of the Taoist books. Modern practice, as noted 
above, has left this unrivalled god somewhat out in the cold and 
turn preferably to Yuh-hwang, First Lord of the skies. 

A critical view is represented by Sii-p'u f£ p$ (president 
of the Tribunal of Rites under the Ming B£j) on the question: 
"The three Pure Ones (the three members of the Taoist Triad) 
are merely a fictitious invention of the Taoists. Is it not the 
height of absurdity to take Li-lao-tsze ^ -% ^f as one of the 
Three Lords of Heaven". (1) 

To complete this notice, we give here the Taoist legend of 
Yuen-shi T'ien-wang which seems to have been the basis for all 
that has been written about the sfod Yuen-shi T'ien Tsun. 

(1) Cf. Ming-shi B^ $1 Book 181 p. 2 
See Chinese Superstitions, Vol. VI. p. 102 (English Edition) 
In a list of 24 other Buclhas worshipped by Chinese Buddhists (taken 
from a litany) occurs the name 7C i& ^ 3E Yuen sin T'ien wang which 
apparently is but an absorption of the Taoist divinity into Buddhist wor- 
ship (syncretism). Our fig - . 131 shows some Buddhist trappings: the pearl 
on the forehead, the Joh-i sceptre, the suggestion of a lotus-leaf cushions. 



7C ffi 3c S 

Kin-hung ^ ifej, the divinity of T'di-shan ^ til, descendant 
in the fifth generation from P'ai-ku ^ "^f tells the legend thus: 

Once upon a time there lived a man called Yuen-shi Ti'cn- 
wang who dwelt in the mountains and was wont to teach his 
followers on the mountain peaks ; thanks to his teaching my 
brothers and nephews were enabled to arrive at the true doctrine. 
Now this man used to speak of the most remote ages as if he 
had been an eye-witness of the events which he described. When 
asked where his home was, he used merely to point to the skies 
and then iridescent clouds would wrap him about. "Whoever 
would know, he used to reply, where 1 dwell, must fly up to 
these immeasurable heights". Thereupon I thought to myself 
seeing that the vast heavens are void who can tell me where 
to find him at home? But two genii, Ch'ih-tsing-tze ff j^ ^ (1) and 
Hwang-lao jir ^ came down upon the summit of T'ai Shan ^ 
I_Lf and spoke thus among themselves: "Since there is a genius 
called Yuen-shi % #p, let us go to visit him, even if we must pass 
the bounds of the universe and go beyond the outmost stars." 
I begged of them to give me instruction; after some words of 
teaching which 1 welcomed with respect, those two genii climbed 
to the highest peak of the holy mountain, ascended thence 
into the vault of sky and cried to me from the heights of heaven's 
clouds: "If thou wouldst know the beginning of Yuen-shi, 
thou must fare beyond the confines of heaven and earth, for 
he dwells without the bounds of this world. Then must thou 
go higher and ever higher even to the sphere of nothingness 
and being, in the plains of the radiant spirits." 

When they reached those immeasurable heights, the two 

(1) The god of fire, evolved from Yang and Yin assisted by Hiien- 

(2) The First Ancestor of the Sombre Heavens" (up Article V below}. 


genii caught a glint of light and lo ! Hiicn-hiicn-shang-jen ]£ 
£ _L A (1) appeared in front of them. The two genii bowed 
down in homage and gratitude. The apparition answered their 
greetings in words : "You can best show your gratitude by 
imparting my doctrine to men. You wish to know the story of 
Yuen-shi; I will tell you. . . When P'an-ku $£ "ft had in the 
period of primitive chaos finished his work, his soul shed its 
mortal envelope and found itself tossing about in the void 
without any point of support. 

"I must perforce", said the soul within itself, "be reborn 
in order to regain a visible form and preserve my original shape. 
Else until I first get a rebirth in a mother's womb I shall remain 
a mere empty, unstable being". So his soul borne on the wings 
of the wind reached Fuh-yii-tai % ^f ^ ; there it beheld a holy 
woman called T'ai-yuen -Jk yt (2) of some forty years of age, 
who keeping her virginity was living alone on the mountain 
Ts'o-ngo-shan |H |KJ| llj. The air and rainbow mists were the 
sole food of her vital spirits; she was a hermaphrodite combining 
active and passive principles in herself and each day she climbed 
to the mountain top to collect there the flowering quintessence 
of sun and moon. P'an-ku captivated by her virginal purity 
seized a moment when she was sighing to enter her mouth as a 
pure ray of light. She was with child twelve years and at the 
end of that period the birth took place across her spinal column. 
From the first moment of his existence, this child could walk and 
speak and his body was surrounded with a cloud-glory in five 
colours. He took the name of Yuen-shi T'ien-wang ; his mother 
is usually called T'ai-yuen ^ 7C M # ("Holy Mother 
of the First Beginning") 

So, Yuen-shi T'ien-wang 7c £p ;£; 3E is an avatar of 
P'an-ku H -£. (2) 

(1) The Great Principle. Originally Jz meant a vast period of time 
like a geological epoch. 

(2) Cf. She n-sien-tong- kien jjjf)3 f|[| MIS Bk. 1 Art. 4 p. 6,7,8. 




-k m je m 

Fu-li Yuen-shi T'icn-tsun : &^jthnHl^ 
T'ai-shang Tao-teh T'ien-tsun ;fc ± M fig 3^ :©: 
ShangrtsHng Ling-pao T'icn-tsun _h In ft ;Sf 3*i 3§L 
Yuh-ts'ing Yuen-shi T'ien-tsun Jt_ ffi % ffe Ji j§t 

± $& M A ft $ 

* ^ M A # it 



Jt A 1 HJ £ 

Wm shang Yuen Kiin: Mother of Lao-tze. 

Kao-shang Lao tze -\- 522 B.C. 

Wu-shang chen-jen Yin Hi. Lao-tze's Disciple. 

T'ai-hwo chen-jen Yin kwei. Yin His cousin. 

T'ai-kih chen-jen Tu Chung. P'eng Tsu's 

|£jjjt(the Methuselah of China) disciple. 

T'ai ts'ing chen-jen P'eny-Tsuny. 

Avatar of P'ens: Tsu. 
T'ai-ts'ing chen-jen Suny-Lun. Musician. 

Si-yuh chen-jen Funy-Ch'any. 

Hiien-chow chen-jen Yao Ton. Yin hi's disciple. 

PuJi-su chen-jen Chow-Lianh. Yin Tan's disciple. 

T'ai-Wei chen-jen Yin Teny. 

Hwang -ting chen-jen Wang T'an. C.B. 176-157. 

Si-yuh sien-k'iny Li Yih. B.C. 179-157. 

179-157 Ho shany chany jen (Ho shang-kung 

m ± £)• 
-f- C. 130 B.C. Chen-jen Ngan Ki-sheny. 

+ C. 130 B.C. Chen-jen Ma Ming-sheny. 


After the Christian Era: 

Chen-jen Yin Ch'ang-sheng 
Chen-jen Hsu Tsung-shi 
Chen-jen Wei Peh-yang 

MAd^^ + 122 A.D. 
*A!&#^ 121-168 A.D. 

mhmi&\%c. 150 a.d. 



Cheng-yih Ti'en-shi Chang Tao-ling. -f 156 
Hiien in chen-jen Wan-Ch'ang -f- 156 
Luh-tai chen jen Chao Shing -f- 356 
Hwa-yang chen-jen Li Ya. 

Cheng-yang chen jen Chung-li K'iien. + C. 180 
Shun-yang chen-jen Lu Yen. 869-874 

%§$}$. A #J j£ i& Hai chan chen jen Liu Hiicn-ying 911 

Chung-yang cheng-jen Wang Chit -4- 1192 lli^AIS 
Tze-yang chen-jen Chang Peh-twan 1082 $t H jl; A !*ff ffi $ft 

^H^A !/il (6 #$ Tze-yang chen-jen Chang Peh-twan 


Ts'iii-hiien chen-jen Shih T'ai. -f- 1139 
J'ze /w'e7i chen-jen Hsieh Tao-kivang 1159-1169 
S'ui-hu chen-jen Ch'en Nan -f- 1224 
Hai-kiung chen-jen Peh Yuh Chen -f- 1218 
Hoh-lin chen-jen Punej-Sze. 1208-1229 

A J£ + 1192 Chung-yang chen-jen Wang Chit. 



Yuh-yang chen-jen Wang Ch'u yih. -f- 1222 
T'ai-ku chen-jen Hoh Ta-t'ung -j- 1212 
Ch'ang sheng chen-jen Lin Ch'u hiien. -(-1203 
Tan-gang chen-jen Ma Yuh. -f- 1193 
Ch'ang-chen chen-jen Tan Ch'u-ticau. + 1175 
Ch-ang ch'un chen-jen K'iu Ch'u-ki. -f- 1227 
Ts'ing-tsing sien ku Sun Puh-eul. + 1182 

8 Immortal gods, genii 

All these personages are venerated by the "Tao-shi" in 
in their temples together with Iviu Gh'ang-chun's 18 disciples of 
whom a list is given below. 

The above table is taken from the new edition of the 
Taoist Canon (Iff H Too Isang. Commercial Press Edition. Vol. 
370 X° 704; Wieger's Edition, N° 681) 

The author Teng I % §ffi , surnamed Ynh-pin-tze 31 ^ -^ , 

indicates in his Commentary on the Tao tch-king jft ft§ %!$ in 
general lines the chief fore-bears and the most celebrated masters 
of Taoism up to the 14th century. The work dates from 1298. 
according to the preface: the table of the ancestors of Taoism 
was attributed to an ancient "Tao-shi", named Siao Ting-chi ^ 
$£ ;£ without the least scruple about chronological order. 




"Yuh-hwang" means the Jade Emperor. Jade being the 
symbol of Purity, he is sometimes known as the August Pure 
One. Another title of his Yuh-hwang-shang-ti 3£ J* J^ if^, the 
Pure August Over-Lord. 

1. Yuh-hwang in Legend. 

In the Chung-tseng-sheu-sheng-ki g jf| ^ jjj$ fg, (1) the 
following legendary life of Yuh-hwang is given : 

Of old there was a kingdom called Kwang-yen-miao-loh- 
kwoh, ^Jg $> m H whose king was Tsing-teh ffi ^g : the queen 
was called Pao-Yueh j^ ^. Though past her prime she had as 
yet no male child. So royal edict summoned the Tao-shi jf| Jr 
(Taoist priets or adepts) to the palace that there they might 
perform their rites, plant their flags and recite their prayers in 
order to secure an heir for the throne. During the following 
night, the queen was favoured with a vision, Lao-kiln % jg 
appeared to her, riding on a dragon and carrying a male child 
in his arms: he came flying through the air towards her. The 
queen implored him to let her have the child to be heir to the 
crown. "Willingly; take him," said he to the queen. She fell 
on her knees and thanked him. On waking, she knew she was 
pregnant; at the end of a year, on the ninth day of the first 
moon, of the year Ping-wu ptj 4 1 (52nd of the cycle), at noon 
she gave brith to the royal heir. From childhood on, he gave 
proof of compassion and generosity towards the poor; he distri- 
buted all the palace wealth to the people of poor condition. On 

(1) Book I p. 7. 


the death of his father, he ascended the throne but after a few- 
days reign he resigned the sceptre to his prime minister, left the 
kingdom and took to living as an hermit at P'u-ming ^ fjfj and 
on the mountain Siu-yen ^ ||. According to the Ming Annals 
jjg _- ££ rt. Book 34 p. 23, Book 87 p. 25, the mountain P'u-ming 
is situated 90 li (about 30 miles) west of Mien-hien in Shen-si: 
the mountain Siu-yen is 100 li S. E. of the prefecture of Yung- 
ping in Yun-nan.. After attaining "perfection", he passed his 
davs in healing the sick and saving people's lives: death found 
him in this employment. The Sung emperors Cheng-tsung % jf| 
£ (998-1023 A. D.) and Ewui-tsung £ %. £ (H01-112G A.D.) 
bestowed upon him all the posthumous titles with which we 
find him honoured in our own day. 

2. Yuh-hwang in actual history. 

In the year 1005, the Sung Emperor Cheng-tsung had been 
compelled to sign a dishonorable treaty with the Tungus j§ ■£ 
(or K'i-tan §£ ft) and the dynasty was like to fall into disfavour. 
In order to confirm his authority, the emperor turned visionary 
and announced solemnly that he was in direct communication 
with the Heavenly Gods. In this, he was following the advice 
of his minister, the politic and sceptic Wang kin-jao 3£ gfc % 
who had often expounded to him how the supposed revelations 
made to Fuh-hi, Yii-wang and others were merely politic shifts 
to secure obedience. The emperor studiously conned his part 
and finally in the tenth month of 1012 A. D. called together 
his ministers and gave them an account of a dream in which an 
Immortal had brought him a letter from Yuh-hwang, the August 
Pure One, the Emperor of Jade ; the letter ran, "I have already 
sent you two Heavenly Letters by your ancestor Chau (T'ai- 
tsu) ; I am now about to send him to visit you in person." Soon 
this promise was fulfilled and T'ai-Tsu -fr ft the founder of the 
dynasty, came to the Emperor, Cheng-tsung immediately informed 
his ministers of the visit. This gives us the clue to the origin 

Fig. 432 

Yu-hoang, FEmpereur auguste. 
Ytih-hwang , the Pearly Emperor. 


of Yuh-hwang, he was born of a piece of knavery, and issued in 
full panoply from the imperial brain. 

Here, for instance, is the judgment passed by the official 
history of China, the Tze-chi-Pung-kicn kang-muh ^ jfe jj§ H* ^ 
@. Sun-chen-tsong was a knave who cheated Heaven sacrile- 
giously; his minister Wang -kin- jao was a mere scamp. The 
Emperor K'ang-hsi of the Ts'ing dynasty K'ang-hsi J§£ EE 
(1662-1723) when giving the imperial approbation to this official 
history, judged it his duty to add a comment on this very 
passage. Here is his note: "If it is evil to impute falsehood to 
a man, is it not horrible to impute it to Heaven? Cheng -Tsung 
was a poor simpleton and his minister Wang-kin- jao was guilty 
of a great crime". 

To remove all doubt, the great history thinks it proper 
to record this important event, namely the creation of a new 
divinity; "It is at this date that the name of Yuh-hwang figures 
for the first time on the list of divinities to be worshipped. 
Nothing is known about the beginning or end of this personage 
of whom no information is available. It is probable that the 
legends glorifying him date also from this period." 

Cheng-tsung, once pledged to the trickery, was apprehen- 
sive of being taking to task by his minister, the scholar Wang-tan 
3E ill- So he resolved to pledge him to a golden silence. He 
invited him to his table, overpowered him with marks of 
affection and esteem, and made him drunk with a choice wine. 
"I want", he added, ''the members of your household to taste 
this wine, so I am sending you a cask of it as a present." The 
cask was delivered but full of rich pearls. Wang-tan's gratitude 
was to be shown by silence, and Wang-tan complied. On his 
death-bed indeed he demanded that his head should be shaved 
and he should be clothed in the dress of a bonze ; this was 
to be an expiation of his guilty connivance with the Emperor's 
deceit. At this passage, the imperial commentator K'ang-hsi 
takes up his brush again: "Wang-tan is guilty of two faults; 


first in his life-time he proved himself a vile flatterer of his 
sovereign, secondly when death was coming he tried to flatter 

3° Honorific titles conferred on Yuh-hwang. 

In 1013, the Sung Emperor Cheng-tswng had a statue of 
Yuh-hwang cast and set it up in the palace or temple of the 
Jade Pure One. Yuh-ts'ing hung, 3? ffi ^ which was built in 
honour of this god: in person, accompanied by his whole court, 
he visited it and offered sacrifice with the rites usual for the 
adoration of Heaven. 

In 1015, the same emperor conferred on him the pompous 
title of "Supreme author of Heaven, of the Universe, of human 
destinies, of Good, of rites, and of the WAY, purest August 
One, high sovereign of Heaven." 

In 1115, Sung -hwui-t sung had a magnificent temple built 
in honour of Yuh-hwang who received by imperial script the 
right to wear the dress of an emperor ; orders were given at the 
same time to the people to build everywhere Taoist temples and 
to make statues of the "August Pure One." In order to cap his 
exaltation of the Yuh-hwang, the Emperor conferred on him the 
most lofty dignity of all, the title of Shang Ti _fc $? Chief Rule r 
of the Universe, a title that set Yuh-hwang on a level with the 
Sovereign on High, the August Heaven ^ of the scholars. 

The worship of Yuh-hwang as the most popular god of all 
as a real Jupiter, dates from that period. 

A number of works, among others the ''Cheng-ling-wci- 
yeh-tu" j$. fg -gr H |g, set Yuh-hwang on the throne of the 
Third Heaven, the Yuh-ts'ing 3£ -j^f (the Jade Purity) and give 
him the primary in the Taoist Trinity. As far as the people is 
concerned, usually "God" is identical with Yuh-wang. Hence 
there is difficulty in giving the title "Shang-ii" to God, as 
worhipped by Christians: for this title is preferentially used in 


reference to Yuh-hwang by the people — "Ynh-hwang-shang-ti." (1) 

There is a touch of impishness in the remark of a Chinese 
author : "the emperor Hui-tsung who did so much to spread the 
cult and exalt the memory of Yuh-hwang was ill paid for his 
services. Why did his divine protector allow him to perish 
miserably in Sha-moh desert?" 

It would not probably be amiss to surmise that vague 
legends of Yuh-hwang had already existed before the reign of 
Cheng-tsung; perhaps this emperor, conversant with the fables 
of the Taoist priests and the bonzes, had drawn upon them to 
serve his own purpose. 

The statement of the historians that this is the first time 
that the name of Yuh-hwang figures on the list of gods for 
worship, proves merely that this was the first occasion on which 
an emperor formally ordered honours to be paid to this divinity. 

In their pride the litterati, even in our own time, make 
it a point of honour to recognise only the gods named on the 
official lists for sacrifice; this does not mean that they ignore 
the rest, but merely that officially the gods who are not inscribed 
do not receive recognition from the government. 

Adequate proof of the point at issue here would be some 
document prior to Cheng-tsung or some proof that Yuh-hwang 
was already acknowledged by Taoists or Buddhists. 

The Buddhists do in fact claim that Yuh-ii is one of their 
divinities borrowed and appropriated by the Taoists. 

One fact is certain, namely that under the Sung dynasty, 
the Taoist-priests several times endeavoured to foist Taoist 
titles on the gods worshipped by the Bonzes and actually for a 
whole year succeeded thanks to the intrigue of Lin Ling-su ^ 

m. m- (2) 

(1) Cf, Tse-chi-t'unglien-kang-muh. ft $ ill £ IS g Wieger, Textes 
historiques, Vol III. 

(2) Article V, (below) p.4Sl 


One might advance a theory as explanation of a possible 
borrrowing from Buddhism. Cheng-tsung might well have 
selected from his store of superstitious lore a Buddhist deity to 
serve his purpose. But which one? Tentatively, I suggest that 
the Taoist adepts simply took Indra from Buddhism and made 
him their own by a slight change of name. 

Indra is called in Chinese by one of the following titles: 
Yin-to-lo g| |S'£ jg, T'ien-chu Ji ^ (the Master of Heaven), 
Neng-T'ien-chu U£ Ji ^ (the Powerful Master of Heaven), T*-/WWfc 
*$ H the Buddhist Sovereign, or simply Ti ^. Modern bonzes 
call him Yuh-ti 3£ *$?, the Jade Emperor and set him frequently 
on their altars in company with Fan-wang ^ 3E Brahma, e.g. in 
the famous temple of Ting-hwui-tsz % |§ ^p, of Joh-kao j|0 ^ 
(Kiangsu) where they are especially jealous of the purity of 
Buddhist traditions. (1) 

It will be granted that these names are suggestive and 
that the role conferred on Yuh-hwang 3£ Jl by the Tao-shi 
exactly corresponds with that of Master of Heaven and Supreme 

It is an easy step to add Yuh 31 to the title Ti $? or to 
change this Ti for the synonym Hwang Jl. 

Who then first called the god Yuh-ti 3£ ^ ? Was it the 
bonzes or the Tao-shi? 

Certainly it is the bonzes who now-a-days claim the 
divinity as theirs and call him openly Yuh-Ti 3£ ^. His place 
in the temples, facing Brahma, who is the regulation pendant of 
Indra, gives some colour to the suggestion above. (2) 

(1) See article on indra and Brahma. (Vol. VII) At the end of the 
article. (Fig 58) there is a reproduction of the two statues (Yuh-ti and 
Fan-wang) as they are to he seen in the temple of Ting lncni Isz. 

(2) Shakra, or Indra, god of the atmostphere, is, in the modern 
editions of Pe-chang-ts'ing-Jcwei "Manual of Buddhist Regulations and 
Festivals" identified with the well known Taoist divinity Yii-ti". Birthday 
of Shakra, 1st month 9th day. Cf. Edkins. Chinese Buddhism, p. 210. 


The pagans when speaking of this god usually call him 
Chang-Yuh-hwdng, as much as to claim him for an ancestor of 
the family Chang 5i (1) : Chang Tao ling 3J| $ $£ and all who 
have succeeded to him with the title of Master of Heaven ^ gjjj 
claim to be his descendents in the direct line. 

The theory has been sugested that the legend of Yuh- 
hwang was only a symbol of ancient Nature-worship. Thus the 
Emperor, Tsing-teh $* |§, his father, would be the sun, the great 
ruler of all Nature : the queen Pao-yueh ^ ^ is then the moon, 
the fair queen of the heavens: of their symbolic wedlock is 
born the beneficent living power that decks nature with its 
array of plant and flower. I incline rather to the belief that the 
Chinese never thought of these charming fancies, which in fact 
are not to be found in any Taoist book. The Tao-shi and all 
the people regard Yuh-wang as a personal god who keeps a court 
and palace, receives the ambassadors of other inferior gods and 
gives them his orders. (2) 

(1) See p. below 

(2) note Cf. Si-Yu-M BfjigtfE; Nan-hai-ltvanyinp'u-sah-chwan |^ j# H5i 
b" * M %'• and a11 the popular books. 

Note. In a temple dedicated to Yuh-hwang at Haimen-t'ing ff$ f'J Jf* 
I have found the 36 T'ien-Miin ^^" or Taoist genii arranged along the 
walls at each side of the central altar. There are the same Taoist genii 
that we shall describe in succeeding chapters, e.g. the Thunder Depart- 
ment, Sun hen tsze, Chu pa-lciai, Ma Yuan-shwai, the god of the sun, of the 





«"# ft, Kq Sa &h SJ 


^ IK m * 35 » 



Two officers-in-waiting 


, c 
Two officers-in-waiting jQ £ 



Eul-kung ts ao • JJ 



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Two Generals 

Two Generals Q 


Eul ts'iang-l-iiin 

Eul-ts'iang-kiiin I S; 





r JHF ¥ (O ^ 



White tiger 


Wang -ling -In- an 

3E S t 




Green dragon 

The Vestibule and the great hall dedicated to Yuh-hwang 
in the Temple Yuh-hwang-tien 3L M. ]$t (Taoist) 

t'ung-t'ien-kiao-chu 17 



T'ung-Vien-friao-chu jg ^ ffc ^ (1) is in modern Taoism 
regarded as the first of the patriarchs, and one of the most 
powerful genii. His master was Hung-lciiin-lao-tsu $t |£j ^ f£ : 
his dress was a red robe embroidered with white cranes; he rode 
on a Kw'ei niu ^ Hf-, a one-horrid monster somewhat like a buffalo. 
His palace Pih-yiu-kung || $| ^ stood on Mt. Tsz-Chi-ya ^ g 
jH. This genius sided with the infamous Chow-wang £J- 3£ last 
of the Shang dynasty (1154-1122 B.C.) and helped him in his 
struggle with the armies of Wu-wang |£ 3£ first of the Chow 
Dynasty (1122 B.C.). First of all he sent his disciple To-pao-tao- 
jen ^ ^ j| A to Kiai-p'ai-hwan J^- j}$. |j§ and entrusted to him 
four valuable swords along with the plan of a fortress which he 
was to build and call Cku-Sien-Ch'en ffj f[Ij p|L, the "Citadel of all 
the Immortals." (2) 

To-pao-tao-jen carried out these instructions, but he had 
to fight Kwang-ch'eng-tse J| jfc ^ and was struck to the ground 
by his adversary with a blow of his Heavenly seal and had to 
save himself by flight. 

T'ung-tien-Jciao-chu then came to defend his disciple and 
to rally the army. Unfortunately a whole troup of gods came 
to support the Magician, Kiang-tze-ya. (3) H ^ 3J - . The first 
to attack was Lao-tze % ^ who struck him twice or three times 
with his staff; then came Chun-t'i ifl $§ (the goddess of light, 
Maritchi) armed with her stick Kia-ch'i-ivu j]\l ^ $■ ; T'ung- 
t'ien-kiao-chu's buffalo falls and the rider has to escape hurriedly 
into the air amid a dust-whirl. 

(1) Also called T'ung-t'ien-liao-tsu M ^ Wi ffl 

(2) j [Fung-shen-yen-i $t jpiji Jf§ jg Book 6 Hwui JeI 73, p. 31 

(3) See below, Article LIII. He was the Chow general, 


The result of the combats was decisively against our 
worthy: Jan'teng-tao-jen $£ jg ^ff \ (Dipanikara, a Buddha, see 
Vol VI p. 89 sq.) rent the air and swooped suddenly upon him ; 
with a violent stroke of his pillar that steadies the sea Jan-ieng 
flung him down to earth and compelled him to give up the 
struggle. (1) 

T'ung-t'ien-kiao-chu planned a new camp outside T'ung- 
kwan Jij || and endeavoured to renew the attack: a second time 
Lao-tsze's staff stopped him ; Yuen-shi-t'ien-tsun inflicted a 
wound in his shoulder with the precious stone Jou-i j$ ^ 
originally a Sacred Jewel, later regarded as a staff or sceptre 
(see fig. 131) and Chun-ti-tao-jen waved the tree branch of the 
seven powers: on the instant T'wng-t'ien-kiao-chu's magic sword 
crumbled and he had to seek safety in flight. 

Hung-hiun-tao-jen, master of all three spirits, seeing 
them engaged in combat, determined to bring about a peace: so 
he assembled them under one tent in Kiang-tze-ya's camp, made 
them kneel before him and lectured T'ung-t'ien-kiao-Chu at length 
on the iniquity of helping the tyrant Chow ; then he bade all 
three live henceforth in perfect accord. The discourse finished, 
he gave each a pill to be swallowed at once. When the pills 
had been taken, Hung-kiiin-tao-jen then warned them that the 
effect of the pills would be to kill instantly the one who would 
harbour a thought of discord in his heart, for the pill would 
thereupon burst within him. 

Ilung-kiun-lao-tsu took off T'ung-Vien-liao-chu with him 
on the clouds and the meeting broke up. (2) 

(1) Op,cit.Bk.7.Fwwi 77. p.l ; Bk.1,Hwui 78, p. 5. 

(2) Op.cit. Bk,7, Hwui 82, p. 17, Bk 7, Emti 84, p. 25. 

Fig. 133 

T'ong't'ien kiao tchou. 
T'ung-t'ien kiao-chu. 

Fig. 434 

Hong kiun lao tsou. 11 tient en main les trois pilules qu'il donna a Lao tse. a Yuen rlie 

fien tsuen et a T'ong t'ien kiao tsou. 
Hung kiun Lao-tsu (the Great Potter), holding in his hand the three pills which he gavt to 

Lao-tze, Yuan-shi tien tsun and T'ung-Vien kiao-tsu. 



m m m a 

Hung-kiiin-iao-jen (or Lao-tsze ■% f§) is the name of a 
mythical personage whom the Taoists assign as the common 
master of Y uen-shi-Vien-tsun , Lao-tsze and T'ung-Vien kiao-tsu 
(see preceding ad fin.) He is a pure fiction possessing neither 
historical basis nor genealogy of his own. The Taoist books 
show in his hand a bamboo staff with a gnarled root-end forming 
a kind of crosier. 

The palace or paradise where he is reputed to live is called 
Tsz-siao-kung $| ^ > g\ 

He is the primal ancestor of Taoism who has formed by 
his lessons the very founder himself (Lao-tsze), he is the first 
patriarch and the most powerful of the genii. (1) Hence he is 
usually called Hung-hiiin lao-tsu $t f§j ^ §§, "Hung-kiun the 
primal ancestor." 

(1) See Op.cit. Bk. 7. Hwui 8. p. 24. 



£ Ji ± * 


This Taoist god is called: Hilen t'ien-sluiny-ii or Chen-wu 
jPl j£. Yet another name is: Pch-kih yiu-ehcng-ehen-liiin ft ^ f£ 
15 j|| ;fj*. Hiien-l'ien-shang-ti is a reincarnation of Yuan-shi t'ien- 
tsun (see Article I) who on a ray of light entered the womb of 
Shan-sheng ^j| J^, queen of the Kingdom of Tsing-loh $* |f|. 
After fourteen months he came forth. On reaching his fifteenth 
year, he left his father and mother and betook himself to Mt. 
T'ai-hwo >k fp ill to put himself at the disposal of the holy 
patriarch, Tse Ml who came down from the third heaven, the 
Jade Azure, Yuh-ts'ing 3£ Jjif, to teach him a marvellous doctrine. 
Some authors add that a celestial spirit presented him with a 
magic sabre which he wore in his retreat on ^c^lll T'ai-hivu-shan. 

This mountain T'ai-hwo-shan is 120 li to the south of 
Kiicn-chow j^j j'\], in the prefecture of Siang-yang-fu H % fff 
Hu-peh (fft). Its original name was T'ai Yoh ^ Ipt but it 
changed this name when Hilen Pien got orders to stay here. 
One very lofty peak called Tsz-siao $fe ff towered over the whole 
mountain massif, its name was changed to Wu4ang-shan (1) ^ 
•^ \\\ because Chen-wu jf| ^ alone among men is perfection 
itself (2) (a play on the words : Chen-wu-tang i$. jj^ ^, Chen-wu 
is alone capable of.) It was on this high peak that for forty 

(1) Cf. Hing-yiht'ung-chi B^ — }I ;£ Bk. 60, p. 25 

(2) Chen-wu !£ & at Wutang-shan^ ^ \h is one of the most celebrated 
pilgrimages in all China. On the very top of the mountain, on the actual 
peak, there'stands the pagoda of gilted bronze built in 1416, i.e. the 14th 
year of the reign Yung Loh jfc *g| (Ming dynasty). Every year pilgrims 
in tens of thousands come together there especially in the second, the 
third and the ninth Chinese months. 

Fisr. d 35 

Tchen-ou apres sa vietoire. La tortue et le serpent sont a ses pieds, 
Chen-unt after his victory. The tortoise and the serpent lay at his feet. 


years he practised perfection: Such a degree of "subtlety" did 
he reach that he could fly. 

Yuen-shi-t'ien-tsun (the Taoist Primal) got to hear of him 
and sent five dignitaries from among the Heroes of the second 
Heaven and a company of Immortals from the first Heaven to 
invite him up to Heaven. Hiien-t'ien complied and entered the 
golden palace of Heaven. 

That was in the reign of the emperor Chow frj" (B.C. 1154 
the last of the Shang ^ or Yin J$ dynasty). The demon kings, 
Kwei-wang jfe 3£ at the head of their legions were then ravaging 
the universe. Yuen-shi t'ien-tsun ordered Yuh-hwang (the Pearly 
August) to put Hilen t'ien at the head of the twelve great chiefs 
of the heavenly legions and send him down to earth. He went 
bare-foot, with hair unbound ; he wore a breastplate of gold 
over a black robe and amid the black clouds he raised his 
black standard. 

Here are the names of the twelve officers of the Heaven 
as they are given by the "Lao-kiun-luh-kiah-fu-tu $£ H=i s< ^ ffi 

as quoted by the Tuh-shii-kUshu-iioh fft * •§£ % J|. Bk.43, p. 4. 

Sz-ma-k'ing %M>^ Chao-tze-jen Hi"? 13: 

Chang-wen-Pung 51 ^CM Tsan wen-hung #$c3SC^ 

SMh-shah-i'ung .^J^jjt Ts'ui shihk'ing -Hj-^Jilp 

Wang wen-k'ing 3i £ |||] Chan-tsze-kiang JH -^ yx 

Hu-wen-chang Jg -$£ -J| Wei shang -A" in g HjJtJlP 

Mung-pai-king 3n.^1$i Ming-wen-chang f^^jfl 

Hiien-Pien fought the demon-king at T'ung-yin -][pj [^ (The 

Grotto of Gloom). Mo-wang jf 3£ made out of air a grey 

tortoise and a huge serpent which fought on his side. Yet 

Yuen-wang and his heavenly army won the victory, overran the 

enemy and flung the devils in chains into the abyss Fung-tu f?p 

%$ in Szechwan (7t| )\\ : that chasm is reputed the mouth of hell. 

The victor then ascended to his golden palace in Heaven 
and Yuen-shi-Pien-tsun as a reward gave him the title Hiien-Pien 


shang-ti 3£ % J^ ^ : First Lord of Heaven. Such is the story 
in the CMng-tseng sheu shen-ki Jl j$ ^ f$ IE Bk, 1. p. 12 (J^ 
^). According to the Suh-wen-hien t'ung-kao Jff -£ $k jgj ^ Bk. 
241, p. 28 his name Hiien-wu j£ $£ is the name of the Polar 

One of the Sung emperors, Cheng-tsung jgL ^ (997 A.D. 
— 1022 A.D.) in whose name the character j£ hiien occurred, 
changed ;£ 0^'s name to j|| j^ and by that name he was known 
for the future. (1) 

The Yuan (Mongol jt dynasty) emperor Ch'eng Tsung 
J& ^ (1294 A.D. to 1307 A.D.) conferred on him a fuller title : 
"Holy Beginning good and Majestic, First Lord of High 

We must now turn to the supposed apparition of Huen-t'ien 
chang-ii to the Sung Emperor, Hwui Tsung % %fc ^ (1100 A.D. 
to 1126 A.D.) This emperor was an ardent Taoist: he requested 
the Tao-shi to register him in their annals as the emperor, 
prince and master in Taoism. "He had a special veneration for 
one Ling-ling-su ffi. f|t ^, a Tao-shi ; this man was a native of 
Wen-chow $j| j'\] in Che-kiang ('/jft). He had been a Buddhist 
priest but being ill-treated, he ran away and become a Tao-shi. 
One day on a begging expedition to a Buddhist monastery, he 
was maltreated by the bonzes and in consequence kept a lasting 
grudge against them. In 1118 Hwui tsung on a visit to some 
Taoist priests, heard from them such praise of Ling-ling-su that 
he conceived a high esteem for the man and bestowed on him 
the title, "true, enlightened and intelligent master." 

Lin-ling-su intimated to Hwui-tsung that he had received 
from heaven a book in characters written square and (apparently 
"old seal" cloud-like; it was a mere farrago of fables and rubbish 
to fool the people. He got numerous taoist temples built with 
the avowed aim of ousting the teaching of the bonzes and 
avenging the insult he had suffered at their hands. At first he 

(1) Sui-yuan-sui-pih FI ® FI ^ Bk G p. 6 

Fig. 136 

Tchen-ou tient en main son drapeau enroule. 
Chen-xou, holding in his hand his rolled up flag. 

huen-t'ien-shang-ti 23 

carried on his trickery in partnership with the Tao-shi Wang- 
yun-shang, but they fell out and Ling su poisoned his fellow. 
In fine, he become insufferably arrogant and was detested by 
everybody. One day, encountering the heir to the throne, he 
declined to yield place to the prince. The latter on his return 
to the palace lodged a complaint with his father. The emperor 
dismissed Lin to his native district and gave orders that the 
local mandarins, especially the Wen-chow mandarin, called 
Kiang-iwan-pen, should make enquiries about him. This officer 
got definite evidence of Lin's vicious proceedings and send 
a report to the emperor. An imperial order decreed Lin's 
banishment to Chu-choiv, but he was dead before the order 
reached him. 

Now, this personage plays an important part in our 
present matter. One day, the Emperor Ilwui Tsung told him 
that he would like to see Chen-wu' s sacred person. "Your 
majesty," said Ling-su, to obtain this favour must along with 
me summon to the palace the Master of Heaven (T'ien-shi ^ 
Of) : Chan-tsing-hu who is the successor of Chang-tao-ling j/jt 
j|| §i? (the sovereign pontiff of Taoism). At the moment when 
these two were performing their rites at midnight, the sky 
darkened. Suddenly lightning rends the skies, the thunder rolls; 
a grey tortoise and a serpent are dropped amid a blaze of light 
at the treshold of the palace. The emperor casts himself down, 
then offers incense and says, "I desire to see Chen-wu, if he 
but deign to reveal himself." The thunder crushes — tortoise 
and serpent are gone — a huge foot is visible on the threshold. 
The emperor makes a second prostration and offers incense 
begging Chen-wu to condescend to show himself more manifestly. 
That moment, he sees standing before him the huge figure of a 
man some ten feet high; his face was stern and striking; his hair 
was unbound : over his black dress which had sleeves sweeping 
down to the ground, he wore a breastplate of gold and a belt 
set with jewels; his hand brandished a sword: his feet were bare, 
round his head there flouted an aureola of light — the ends of 


his belt were floating on the air. He remained long enough for 
the emperor to sketch him and then vanished. (1) 

The Ming Annals ^ j£, Bk. 50 p. 16,18 make mention of 
a temple built in the thirteenth year of Yung-Loh ^ gfe (i.e, 
1416 A.D.). for sacrifice to the Holy and helpful true Master of 
the Polar Star, that is to say, to Huen-wu (a name for the 
Seven Stars of the North) set by Shang-ti in charge of the 
Northern Regions. Human generations called him — "The True 
Master" — Cheng-Kiln jf| ;g" and set at his feet a tortoise The 
tortoise is identified with the "White Tiger" and the serpent 
with "Blue Dragon" and a serpent. The Taoists have fabricated 
without any historical foundation details of the life and deeds 
of this personage. (2) 

The Sung Annals. ^ j£ Book 296 p.l. relate an incident 
assigned to the reign of the Emperor Jen Tsung fc ^ (1023 — 
1064 A. D.) The mandarin at Xing-chow ^ j\] in the prefecture 
King-yang-fu J| % Jft in Kansu (# ||) was one Kung-tao-fu 
descendent from Confucius in the 45th generation. Now a serpent 
suddenly appeared in the temple of Chen-wu and the inhabitants all 
worhipped it as a spirit ; all the officials both civil and military 
made libations of wine and prostrated themselves before the 
animal. Thereupon Kun-tao-fu went to the pagoda and crushed 
the reptile's head with a blow of his official tablet. At first the 
folk were horrified, but soon everybody praised his wisdom. 

The novel, Si-yiu-ki M $1 IE would have it that the 
Tortoise and the Serpent are two marshals at the disposal of 
this divinity : the story will be found at the page quoted in the 
note above. 

In the more important temples of Chen-wu (SL g£ it is not 
unusual to find fourteen figures supporting him, seven on each 
side of the altar. Of these the first eight are the brigands he 
met on the Mountain Pah-p'an-shan A j& tlj when he was going 

(1 ) Sung-shi Jfc $l Bk'. 463 p. 9- Lang-ye-tai-tsui.pien j||! flp f\J f^ f|g Bk. 
29 p. 9. 

(1) Si-yiu-li ® ?S 111 Vol. VI p. 20. In this work, he is named: "T'ang- 

mo-t'ientsun 1% fAl^^- 


to Si-t'ien U ^ to worship Buddha. These rohbers stopped him 
and wanted money. ''I have no money, he explained," I am on 
my way to worship Buddha." With that, the brigands showed 
their desire to accompany him, became his disciples and afterwards 
genii. The other six are demons whom he made subject to 
himself by his famous victory o\er them and their legions. 
Some Tao-shi claim that these are merely four military officers 
and two civil officers attached to his suite. 













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1 11 
















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i-t'ung (maid-servant) 

f? tt 



£ 1 





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* & £ # 


Preliminary notions. — What, according to the Taoists, is 
an immortal? Their immortal is a man who grows old but does 
not die. The term Sien f[|j (or Hiien) means, as the character 
(1) might suggest graphically, a man who lives in the mountains, 
the mountain-solitary. The character consists of a man \ (J^) 
and a mountain |Jj (shan). The immortals, though in semblance 
they die, do not really do so. What is called a corpse, is in 
their case but a metamorphosis; their bones are in process of 
transformation. After death, they retain all the properties of 
the living being; their feet do not become livid, the skin remains 
fresh, their eyes do not lose their light ; though apparently dead, 
they are more alive them ever. Some of them shed the corpse- 
shell before they are put into grave : others can fly in the air 
before their hair begins to fall out : for all, the corpse is merelv 
a transition stage ; it is the outer-casing of the change. It is like 
the process by which the butterfly emerges in all its new 
brilliancy from its uncouth pupa-shell when transformation has 
taken place. 

In order the better to understand this notion of the Taoist 
ascetics, it is well to recall briefly their classification of the 
super human beings who live in this universe. 

(1) See "Wieger, Characters. Etymological Lessons 25. I. where 
another, older former is explained as one who by Taoist practices rose 
above mortals. 


In order to attain such degree of transcendent qualities as 
is accessible to human nature, a regime is necessary : there is a 
hygiene of soul as well as of body. The first requirement is 
strict abstinence from all that is calculated to use up the forces 
of the body viz. sexual indulgence, pleasures of the palate, 
ambition; such are the negative conditions. But abstention does 
not carry one far; the vital spirit, the essence of the constituent 
elements Tin and Yang must be strengthened in all ways 
possible ; hence special application of dietary, medicine, chemistry, 
gymnastics. When the maximum of vital forces has been 
secured, methods must be devised for conserving these, for 
protecting them from the ravages of disease and death in fine, 
the adept has to "spiritualise" himself, to render himself 
independent of matter. This search gave birth to an alchemy 
that sought to store up in a "pill of immortality" all the elements 
necessary for the development of vital forces and for the cons- 
titution of a new transcendent man, a superhuman man. In 
this scale of perfection, there are degrees : — 

a) The immortal — This first degree consists in begetting 
and bringing to birth in one's self the superhuman embryo ; 
this should, on attaining perfect development, issue from the old 
body (like the cicada from its first skin) : this degree is the 
Taoist ascetic, the Immortal.. The immortal can travel at will 
through the universe, enjoys all the blessings of glowing health, 
has nothing to fear from sickness or death, eats and drinks in 
amplest measures- — is perfectly happy. 

b) The hero or perfect man — This second degree is 
higher still. The body is here no chrysalis shell to be shed and 
left behind but is itself so spiritualised, has become so subtle 
so transcendent that it can fly through the air: it is borne on 
the wings of the wind or sits on the clouds and so travels from 
one world to another and takes up its abode in the stars : it is 
freed from all the laws of matter and yet is not completely 
changed into a pure spirit. 


c) The saint. Third degree. Amongst the heroes, there 
are certain superior beings, endowed with extraordinary genius 
and virtue : these constitute the third class of superhuman 
beings, the saints. 

Thus there are three distinct categories : 
1° The ascetics or immortals: Sien fj|j 
2° The heroes or perfect men: Chen jen jj| A 
3° Among the perfect there are the eminent saints: 
Sheng H. (1) 

Immortals of the first rank are transformed in the full 
light of day : for those of second rank, the metamorphosis takes 
place at midnight: those transformed in the morning or the 
evening become the masters of the world : everything in fine 
depends on the degree of infused knowledge with which they 
have been favoured (2) 

(1) For fuller treatment, see Fr. Wieger's exhaustive handling of 
Taoism. (Taoism) 

(2) Cf. Tsih-sien-luh H <f|l| g£ T'ai-ping-kwang-ki ^ *$■ ^ fg Bk 58 
p. 5, Shi-wen-lei-tsii (ts'ien-tsih) Ip? 3t M *£ FJiJ H Bk > 34 P- 1 - Shih-ming ^ 
£ (K'ang-hi-tsz-tien under the word Sien | ^ ^ J| -fllj ±£). 

The king of the Immortals is Tung-wang-kung ]ff 3E fi - * called 
also Muh-kung ^ £•. The queen of the Immortals is Si-wang-muh jflf 3E #' 
also called Kin-mu ^ -f!Jr. 


I. Tung-wang-kung ^C 3E & 

The god of the Immortals, Tung-wang-kung , surnamed 
Muh-kung /fs; & (Ruler of the Element Wood) is also called I jfc 
and Kiiln-ming ^ B^ (1) 

In the beginning, the primitive air congealed and at first 
remained motionless : then it set itself to achieve a crowning 
merit by producing beings : it began by fashioning Muh-kung /fc 
^ from the most pure substance of eastern air and then establi- 
shed this being as the Sovereign of the active principle "Yang" 
$9 and of all the regions of the East. 

So Tung-wang-kung is often designated, Yuh-hwang-kiiln 
3E Je M ("the prince Yuh-hwang"). His palace is in the clouds; 
violet clouds form its dome, blue clouds its walls. He has as 
man-servant the "Young Immortal" (Sien-t'ong) f[I] j| and as 
maid the Immortal, Yuh-nii (the Jade Woman) 31 ic. 

The roll of the Immortals is in his hands. He is often 
called: Tong-hwa-ti-kiiin jfc iji $fr ;g". (2) 

(1) Cf. Suliweii-hient'ongk'ao #f % J|£ Sflj jg Bk. 214 p. 2. 

(2) See also: Chinese Superstitions Vol. Ill p. 256 (English Transl) 
Vol IX Article XLVI, below. Mayers: Chinese Reader's Manuel, N» 
572, 508. 

Fir. 437 

La deesse Si wang-mou. 

The Goddess Si-wang-mu (tlie Western Royal Mother) 


II Si-wang-mu if 3E # 

{Queen-Mother of the West) in the legendary. "Shen 
Chow" (fliljj ')]]) 1. Origin. Si-wang-mu was fashioned of the 
purest quintessence of western air. She is often called : "Golden 
Mother ^ -££ of the Tortoise." Her family name has three chief 
variants: Heu $| ; Yang j§j\ Ho fa. Her own name is Hwui [g] 
and her first name "Wan-kin" ^ jfo. 

Tung-wang-Jcung ^f 3£ fe formed of the eastern air is the 
male, active principle of the air and ruler of the air of the East : 
Si-wang-mu |f ^E #, born of the western air is the female, 
passive principle and is sovereign of the air of the West. These 
two principles by combining, beget Heaven and Earth, (1) all 
the beings of the universe and thus become the two principles 
of life and of the subsistance of all that exists. 

2° Si-wang-mu's Palace. It is planted on the lofty peaks of 
the snow-clad chain K'wun-lun j=* ^-. A rampart of solid gold 
surrounds the twelve blocks of storied structures, all built of 
precious stones: this rampart is a thousand li in circumference — 
that is, it covers 300 miles. 

The right wing stands on the enchanted bank of the 
''Kingfisher's Stream" — it is the usual abode of the Immortal 
beings of the male sex while the neighbouring left wing is that 
of their female counterparts. There are seven divisions corres- 
ponding to seven distinctive colours of dress : red, blue, black, 
violet, yellow, green — and undyed. There is there a marvellous 
fountain made of gems — we shall shortly have to tell of the 
annual banquet of the Immortals held there. 

(1) Others accounts interpret their origin as "the first created and 
creative results of the powers of nature in their primary process of 
development (Mayers 1. c.) : or born of Yin and Yang beneath the influence 
of Heaven and Earth (Vol. JII p. 258). 


But every Immortal must, before taking up his residence, 
pay first of all a visit to Si-wang-mu. The "Sien-fo-tsi-tsung" tells 
us that Muh-wang %% ^ of the Chow Dynasty (1001 B. C. — 946 
B.C.) paid a visit to a Western queen named Si-wang-mu ftf 3E 
-fsj: who lived in the mountain group K'wang lun Shan (some 
have suggested Babylon!) and that he had a famous interview 
with her on the magic border of the delicious fountain "Yao-ch'i 
Jg -Jife. Cf. Muh-t'ien-tsze-ch'wan % Ji ^ ^. (1) 

Here is the text of the famous verses attributed to Si- 
wang-mu on this occasion : they are addressed to her imperial 
visitor : 

In the heavens hover great and white the clouds 
On earth below are jagged hills and mountain peaks: 
Long is thy way climbing heights and breasting floods 
Die not therein but unto us once more return. 

Taoists writers have made of Si-wang-mu a second Calypso 
to enchant Muh-wang ^| 3E much to the detriment of his 
imperial office. But all that is the merest fable spinning. 

3° Images and Cult of Si-ivang-mu "jfff 3E #• She is 
sometimes depicted in human shape but with some distinctive 
details: a panther's tail, tiger's teeth, dishevelled hair. (2) In the 
"Chi-ma-tien" (paper-talisman shops) $£ Jg| j£, Tung-wang-kung 
~M 3: & and Si-wang-mu "g[ 5E # are usually to be had on one 
"Chi-ma" $£ jjE, side by side, and entitled Muh-kung ^ Q and 
Kin mu ^ -fp:. 

At the period of the feodal wars, at the end of the Chow 
JfD, towards 400 B.C., Kii-isien ^ jg| of the kingdom of Yuch ^| 
(the modern Chekiang $ft yX)> an d conqueror of the kingdom of 
Wu J%. (modern Kiangsu, parts of Anhwei, Chekiang and 
Kwang-si) created at the request of his minister Wen-chang an 
altar to "Si-wang-mu" (|f 3E #) i n the western suburb of his 

(1) But this Muh Son of Heaven may have been a prime of Ts'in 623 
B. C. (So. M.Ed. Chavannes) 

(2) V. below Article LVI, 1. 

Fig. 438 

Tong-wang kong et Si-wang-mou. Le roi et la reine des Immorteis. 
Tung-wang kung and Si-wang-mu. The king and queen of the Immortals. 


capital. He had sacrifices offered to her to ask for happiness 
and longevity, This become a usual practise : Si-wan-mu was 
depicted as a noble matron and sacrifices were offered to her. 

Legend relates that in the year 110 B.C. Si-wang-mu 
came in person down to the palace of the Han Emperor Wti-ti 
iH "^ $? on ms birth-day and made him a present of seven 
peaches that confer immortality. This is to be linked with the 
account of the annual feast, P'an-t'ao-hwui ^ ^ "j}", the Feast 
of the peaches. Once a year by the magic fountain "Yao-chi" 
1% ?&> Si-uang-mu entertains the Immortals of both sexes, 
Besides such exquisite viands, as bear's paws, monkey's lips, 
dragon-liver and phoenix-marrow, they are served with peaches 
from the goddess's orchard such as are endowed with the 
myterious power of conferring immortality on all who have the 
happiness to taste of them. The Si-yiu-hi M M IE describes in 
romantic style the garden, the peach-harvesting and the setting 
of the feast. (1) 

Possibly it is due to these fables that a custom has arisen 
of offering an image of Si-wang-mu to women when they reach 
their fiftieth year. Before the image, prostrations are made, 
prayers are offered and incense with a view to obtaining a 
prolongation of life. 

In the year 3 B.C. in the reign of Ngai-ti Jg $? of the 
Earlier (Western) Han ~fft -/Jl, a revolt broke out in Shan-tung 
li| ^ on the occasion of a great drought. The rebels paid 
special worship to this goddess, offered sacrifice to her and 
carried stalks of sorghun (Indian millet) in their hands: these 
they called wands of Si-wang-mu (2) 

4° Sons and daughters of Si-wang-mu. Here is a list as 
complete as the author could make it. 

Only one sou, but he is the ninth, could be found: 
Huen-siu j£ ~% bearing the title Chen-jen ^ \ (perfect man, see 
above p. 28) ; there is no trace of other brothers. 

(1) Vol. 1. Ch. 5. 

(2) Wieger. Textes Historiques 1 Vol. p. 695 


More daughters are to be found. The fourth is Hivd-lin 
j§i $c her first name is Yurig-chen ^ jH and her title is :"Nan- 
kih fu-jen ]|f Hi ^ A- She is consort of the God of longevity; 
as such she is popularly entitled Sheu-sing lao-t'eu-tze H ^ ^ 
jgf rf; "the Old Head of the Star of Longevity." The 
thirteenth of her daughters is called Mei-lan ^f j|| with the further 
name of Chung-lin ftjj ^ and the title Yiu-ying-fu-jen ^ Sj^b 3^ A 
"Lady of Right hand beauty": her abode is on Mount Ts'ang- 
lang ^ fa Mj. 

The twentieth is called Ts'i?ig-ngo fl- $$, her prefix is 
Yii-yin J«r ^ and she is entitled : Lady of the Star Tze-wei % ^ 
(1) (It is this star that was incarnated in the person of the 
Emperor. Hence the phrase "a star has fallen from heaven,'' 
used at the death of an emperor. In the imperial palace there 
were pictures of Tze-wei as incarnated in the emperor). Her 
palace is on Mount Yuen-lung 7C Pf| |Ij at Yii-yc Jft jg^. 

The twenty third of her daughters, Yao-ki Jg #(£ bears the 
title of honour, "Lady of the Flowery Clouds." It was she who 
gave to Yil ^ the great, the collection of formula for unvoking 
demons or ghosts. 

The youngest daughter named Wan 1$[ is known as 
Yuh-chi-fu-jen 3£ /js; ^ A : "lady of the Jade Flower (? plant)" 
or as T'ai-chen-wang -fu-jen -fc jf| 3£ ^ A> "The T'ai-Chen King's 
Lady." Every time she drows music from her violin, the birds 
gather to hear the melodious harmony : she rides on the white 
dragon and travels over the sea at will. 

Cf. Chen-chen pien-ivang §||| if| $j ; f ^ p. 97 
Yin-yang-tsah-tsu -g- % % & Bk.14 p. 2 
Sien-chwan-shih-i fllj fi| Ifr jjl in T'ai p'ing-kwang-ki 

* ¥ m IE Bk.e.p.i. Bk.p.i 

Ming-yih-Pung-ehi BJ — $ jfc Bk.52,p.2 : Bk.67p.42 11 
Kwang-yii-ki ^ Jj| ffJ Bk. 13 p.23 

(1) See Vol. XII p. 1220 


The Eight Immortals PAH-SlEi\ (T) B.C 

A # 

There is no reliable evidence for the legend concerning 
the Eight Immortals before the Sung 5^ period : it even seems 
very likely that it was invented in the time of the Yuan j£ 
dynasty (1280-1368 A.D.). Such is the opinion of a famous 
writer Hu-ying-Jin ijfl )M M$ and in his works he gives reason in 
support. The emperors of the Yuan dynasty favoured Taoism 
which then grew rapidly in influence. They gave to Han-chung- 
U fH H iH the title of "True Male Principle :" to Lii-tung-pin 
@ ^|pj H* that of '-Pure Active Principle"; Ho sien-ku ffi -f[i| jfo 
then was taken to be his pupil and gradually this came to be 
the accepted opinion. It was at this epoch that for the first 
time the Eight Immortal were brought into the comedies and into 
congratulations on the attainment of the fiftieth year of age. 
Our author declares that there is no trace of such observances 
before the Yuan dynasty. 

Among the various names of the Pah Sien A fll], some are 
those of historical personages while others belong to the realm 
of romance and fable. Below the different sources are distingui- 
shed in our brief notices. 

In this section the reader will find first of all a catalogue 
of the names according to the various lists and a general 
division into categories with charateristics ; afterwards each of 
these worthies will have a notice all to himself. 

Lists of the "Eight Immortals - ' 

1° According to the Shi-wu-yuen-hui iff #j ffi -gf Bk. 33, p. 7. 
Han-chung-li *Jf $| ||| Lii-tung-pin g j|jij ^ 

Chang-kwo-lao ^ H ^ Lan-ts'ai-hwo J* ^ 7^3 


Han-sian-tsze ff. ^ ^ Ts'ao-kwohJciu t*" |g jji| 

Ilo-sien-ku fa fill M Li-yuan-chung ^ x; 4* 

2° According to the (Yuen-lung) T'ung-kao-ts'iien-shu jj§ 5J| 
& # (Wai-kiien) p. 18 

Same names except that T'ieh-kwai-li ^ ^ ^ replaces 
Li-yuan-chung ^ 7C 4 1 - ^ * s ^* s Ust that has established itself 
in popular representations and in the lists as usually quoted. 

3° The Suh-wen-hien-tung-kao & £ jjgg jj| % Bk. 241 p. 3, 47 
gives the following list : 

Han-chung-li iH fl fit Lu-tung-pin g -j[0] jp[ 

Lan-tsai-hwo f f | Han-siang-tze |^ $f| ^ 

Ts'ao-kwoh-kiu "If |U J| THeh-kwai-li $$, }j] ^ 

Fung-seng-ko JH f^ If Hiien-hu-tze j£ 1j| *? 

4° In the work Yen-pu-tsa-ki ^H j^ $| §£, Bk. 6. p. 16 we find 

the following's list of the Eight, in great part differing from any 
other : 

Li-?7i ^ 5 Yung-ch'eng fa j& 

Tung-chung-shu Jf ftfi ^f Chang-tao-ling 311 JEft §|? 

Y en-kiun-p'ing J| |* zp Li-pah-peh ^ A B 

Fan-chang-sheu fa -ft ^ Koh-yung-kwei J§ ?j< Jfc 

#*'ew wm«(/ f[I] H 

Classification and Distinctive Features of the Eight Immortals. 

1° Classification. 

All classes of mankind are represented among the Eight. 
Greybeards are represented by Chang-kwo-lao, youths by Han-yii's 
(I*? M) grandson, Han-siang-tse. Han-chung-li is the representa- 
tive of military men, Lii-tung-pin of the literati and wealthy. 

The nobility contributes Ts'ao-kwoh-kiu, the needy Lan- 
ts'ai-kwo, the infirm have provided the lame T'ieh-kwai-li and 
womankind Ho-sin-ku. 

Thus in the representations, three different groups of 
Pah-sien A fill are to be found : Primitive Immortals, "Mediaeval" 


Immortals and Modern Immortals. 

2° Characteristic emblems of the Eight Immortals. 

a) Chang-kwo-lao jj|§ ^ -%£ is depicted with his ass on 
which sometimes he rides with his face towards the animal's tail. 
He carries in his hand a phoenix-j 'eaiher and less frequently a 
peach of immortality. 

b) Lan Ts'ai-houo f ^ |] usually is playing on the flute: 
this Immortal is the street-singer, symbol of the mountebanks. 
Two long clackers or castanets complete the portrait. 

c) Han Siang-tze ff£ }!$ ^ carries a basket of peaches of 
immortality or a bouquet of flowers. 

d) Han-chung-li fj| $§ ^| fans himself with his feather-fan 
(Yil-mao-shan ffy ^ |f ) ; he is also found holding his peach of 

e) Lii-tung-pin g -}|pj §|[ is armed with his magic sword to 
drive away the demons Chan-yao-kwai jjpf ^ j^ and he carries in 
his hand his Yiln-chen :ji ^ (||) a kind of fly-whisk, in the 
shape a horse's tail. This Taoist emblem is a taken of the power 
to fly in the air and to walk on the clouds at will. (1) 

f ) Ts'ao-kwoh-kiu T|f m J§ is said to hold in both hands his 
Tun-yang-pan (or Sheu-pan ^ $() or ^j Hwuh a kind of tablet 
which had to be held when one was admitted to an imperial 
audience. In our figures 146, 151, he holds his usual symbol, 
castanets, $g' ^ or ^@ jfc. (1) This p'ou-sah or Immortal had 
free entry to audience with superior deities. Ts'ao-kwoh-kiu was 
connected with the imperial family and had in fact access to the 
Emperor's presence. 

g) T'ieh-Jcwai-U H })} ^ is depicted with an iron leg and a 
gourd. (A gourd is $j /§ Hu-Lu : and the crucible is 4*J- M.Tan ^ u ) 

(1) Also called yak's tail J% !§. It is of Indian origin. It is used by 
both Buddhist and Taoist priests. In Buddhism, it signifies obedience to 
the commandment not to destroy the life of anything living. See, Encyclop. 
Sinica p. 186, 


containing magic remedies. In our pictures he has also his 
crucible for making his potions. His image is ordinarily used 
as a sign for pharmacists in Chinese cities. 

h) IIo-sien-kH jpj -|jjj jfc is shown holding in her hand a 
bloom of the magic lotus or else with the peach which Lii-tung- 
ping g ^ ^ gave her in the mountain gorge to help her to 
find her way. Sometimes she is playing the Sheng 2£, a Chinese 
musical instrument, and drinking wine. She is a free-and-easy 
beauty and her protector Lii-tung-pin is the scholar of still freer 
morals as may be seen in the attractive picture called by the 
Chinese : — Lii-tung-pin hsi-mou-tan g ^ ^ |$ ^ f\ Lie-tung-pin 
admires a peony. (1) 

(1) See Part I. Plants and flowers. (Vol V p. 733; Figure 231) 
Note: It may be of interest to give the names of the Eight in Fig. 140: 
from right to left they are: Ho Sien Ku: T'ieh lew ai li (in yellok): Lan 
Ts'ai-hwo: Ts'ao Ewoh-kni: Chang Kwo-lao (back to front): Han Siang-tsze 
(in green); Han Chung-li: Lil Tung-pin. 


HAN CHUi\G-Ll -g| |f§ j|| 

There are different acccounts given of his origin and life. 

1. His family name is Chung-Li $§ $$= : Han fj| indicates 
that he lived under the dynasty of that name, the whole title 
meaning, "Chung-U of the Han period". 

His personal name is K'iien ;f|§ and his first name : Yun- 
fang |!| Jf . He was born in the district of Hien-yang-hsien $ |I§ 
]§|, a sub-prefecture of the some-time capital Si-ngan-fu W ^c iff 
in S hen-si ^ ]ffif. He became marshal of the empire, in the year 
2496 (Chinese cycle). 

On attaining old age, he retired into solitude on Mount 
Yang-kioh #: ^ ll], 30 li N.E. of Yih-ch l eng-hien J| ^ jf$ in the 
prefecture of P'ing-yang-fu ^p- $§ $f in Shan-si I_£j "gf. He possesses 
the honorific title : "Imperial prince of the true active principle". 

2. Chung-li-k'iien @^|^| was only a vice-marshal in the 
service of the Uuke Chow-hiao J§) ^ ; he was defeated in a 
battle and fled to Chung-nan Mountains $& ~$j jjj where he found 
five heroes, the flower of the East who taught him the doctrine 
of the Immortals. 

At the opening of the T'ang dynasty M, Han-chung-li 
taught this same science of immortality to Lii-tung-pin g ^|pj ^ 
and took the invidious title : "Sole independant under heaven. (2) 

3. Hdn-Chung-li, also called K'iien lived in the T'ang Jf 
dynasty. He has been wrongly confused with the Han marshal 
Chung-Li-mei (g^). Han-chung-li is not a man's name but the 
name of a district. (3) 

(1) Cf. Lii-tsu-ts'iien-sliu g $§. §£ jg Passim. (Bk.I p. 1.18). Shi-wuh- 
yun-hwui. f t I # Bk. 33 p. 2 

(2) Cf. Shi-wulc-yuen-hwui | ftg f Bk. 33 p. 7. 

(3) Cf. Ting-wei-tsa-luh |T H H H Bk. 3. p. 2 


4. This "immortal" must be the same as a Taoist adept, by 
name, Chung-li-tze $§ )H ^f who was present at the celebrated 
interview between Ch'cn-yao-ize ffi f=e ^ with T'wan $j|. (1) 

5. He was a beggar who took the title, Master Chung-li 
£i HI and who gave "Lao-ehi" ■%; j±- a pill of immortality. This 
latter had barely swallowed the pill when he became mad, left 
his wife and attained immortality. (2) 

These two opinions «4», «5» and the works that authorise 
them are mentioned in the Old Annals of the T'ang (3). 

(1) Sung-shi-ch'en,T'wan-eJiwan Sfc & |5i $5 fi£. 

(2) Cf. Wanglao-chi-ch'wan 5E % Sg %■ 

(3) Kiu-t'angshu ||S Bk. 8 p. 23. 

Fig. 4 41 

Han Tchong-li. 
Han Chung-U. 


LU-TLNG-PIN g }|j|| j|[ 

Lii-tung-pin seems like the preceding Immortal to have 
once really existed notwithstanding the differences in the dates 
assigned to him by different sources. 

First Version: — Lii g is his family name, his other name 
is either Tung-pin or Yen rgi. He came from Yung-loh-hsien jfc |j| 
f£ in the prefecture of Ho-chung-fu fp[ pjq fft in Shen-si |$£ "gf , 
120 li to S.E, of the present sub-prefecture of Yung-tsi-hsien ^ 
IH M- His great grand-father Yen-ehi ^ ;£ was Eastern 
supervisor of the river "Ho-tung" (p$ ]|r) under the T'ang Jf. 

His grand father Wei •jfij was president of the Board of 
Rites and his father Jang |f| was prefect of Hai-chow -/fj j'\\. It 
was in the reign of T'ang-Teh-tsung Jf ^ ^ in the fourteenth 
year of the Chen-yuan j=| j£ period (798 A. D.), on the fourteenth 
day of the fourteenth month that Lii-tung-pin came into the 
world; he grew to be five feet two inches in height: at twenty 
years of age he had not yet married. It was at this period of his life 
that he uudertook a voyage to Mount Lil JH [ll in the prefecture 
of Kiu-kiang % yx in Kiang-si fx If- There he met the hero 
"Fire-Dragon" who gave him a magic sword, thanks to which 
he could at will hide in the skies: it was then that he took 
the title : "Pure active". At 64 years of age, he passed his 
examinations for the doctor's degree : that was in the listen Pong 
^ 5j| period (869-847 A.D.) of the T'ang emperor I-isung.^^ ^ 

It was during a journey to the capital -^ -^ Chang-ngan 
(Si-ngan-fou "gf ■$• ffi in Shen-si |$j "jftf that he chanced to meet 
the Immortal Chung -li-kiuen H j|| || (Han-chun-li yj| $| g|). 
Chung-li was in an inn and was engaged in heating a cup of 
sorghum wine. Lii-tung-pin was as it were ravished in an 
ecstasy, and dreamt that he was promoted to a high dignity and 
blessed with all the favours of fortune. This happy state lasted, 
so he thought, some fifty years: suddenly a grave crime brought 


about his own exile and the extirpation of his family. Thus, all 
alone in the world, he was sighing- bitterly when he awoke with 
a start. It had been but a little time since his fell asleep, so that 
Han-chung-li's wine was not yeh fully heated (1) : hence the 
literary allusion to the "dream of the sorghum wine." Thus won 
over from the ambition for human dignities, he followed Han- 
chung-li to Hoh-ling (Mountain Peak) |§ fj at Chung-nan jfe jft 
there he was initiated into the divine mysteries and became 

The Sung Emperor Hwui-tsung 1115 bestowed on him the 
title of hero of Wonderful Wisdom. Afterwards he was 
proclaimed: "Imperial Prince, certain protector" (2) 

Second Version: — A fable relates that Lu-tung-pin is 
none other than the ancient king Hwang-tan ifl ]|L who was said 
to have reigned 250 years after the primal chaos and to have 
been reincarnated in the reign of the T'ang emperor T'ai-tsung 
)M ~3k tN in the twentieth year of the Chen-kwan period (j=| |f|) 
646 A.D. on the fourteenth day of the fourth moon. His father 
was Jang §|| and his mother one Wang 3£ : he was eight feet 
two inches in height: he wore mustaches and side-whiskers and 
was slightly pock-marked. 

At the age of twenty, he married a young girl named 
Liu §?lj, daughter of a Nieh-t'ai ^ jf, high court judge of 
criminal eases. He failed three times in the doctorate examination : 
at last in the second year of the T'ien-shou ^ |g period of the 

(1) Fig. 13 9 above would seem to allude to this. The two figures 
beneath the tree are Lu-tung-pin and Han Cliung-li. The other two are 
Han-sieng-tsze and Tieh Icwai-li. These immortals are engaged on the 
task of necking the elixir $fc # While doing so, they drink wine f[j p 
and may let a thousand years pass unnoticed. There is the fr\. )f or 
external sublimation and the ft )f or the internal sublimation which here 
is helped by the wine cup. 

(2) Cf. Lu-tsu-ts'uen-shu-pen-chwan. g ffl. Q # # {# Whole of Bk. 
I P, 1,15 

Fig. 142 

Liu Tong-pin, sur le gnao de Koei-sing 
Li'i Tung-pin on Kwei-sing's kraken. 


T'ang Empress ^ fa Wo-hou (691 A.D.), his father ordered 
him to present himself again for examination. He was then 46 
years of age. 

While passing through the capital city Ch'ang-ngan -J| $£, 
he met Chung-li-k'iien H $j| ;|f§ in an inn : he took this latter as 
master and taking leave of the world, followed him to Mt. Hoh- 
Ung l| HI at Chung-nan $§. ~$. Chung li gave him a new name 
Yen rgi with the fore-name Tung-pin -}[pj 3t[. (1) 

3rd Version: — Lii-tung-pin was born in the district of 
P'u-fan-hsien ^ $t M- which then was included in Ho-nan jpj ^. 
It is now in Shan-si (Jj |f to the S.E. of Yung-tsi-hsien tJ< $f 
J$| in the prefecture of P'u-chow (2) fjf jlfl Jft. 

4th. Version, Lii-tung-pin was born in the twelfth year 
of the Chen-yuan j^ x; period of the T'ang Emperor Teh-Tsung 
M W> ^ 796 A.D. His father became prefect of Hai-chow #| )]] 
aud so Lii-tung-pin established himself there. After taking his 
doctor's degree, he became sub-prefect of Teh-hwa-hsien ^ f-fcjlf 
in the prefecture of Kiu-kiang ji fx in Kiang-si ?X W- During 
a voyage towards Mount Lii ft lli in the same prefecture, he 
met Chung-li "the True Active Principle" and by him was 
initiated in the secrets of immortality. (3) 

In all these references and others which could easily 
be cited, there is visible a historical foundation, almost always 
the same : and the fanciful additions made by legend to the life 
of this doctor of the T'ang dynasty do not change it in its 
essence. He was just a scholar, a simple mortal who enjoyed 
no preternatural privileges. (4) 

(1) Cf. Shen-sien-t'ung-kien jjjtjj f|I| jj§ |g Bk. 14 Ch. 3 p.l, 

(2) Lii-tsu-ts'uen-shu, as above, p. 19. 

(3) Id. Bk. l.p.19 

(4) Ch'en-t'uan-chwang [>£ }$ % 

(5) Worshipped by the barbers as Lii-Tsu g H 



Chang-kwo-lao lived as a solitary on Mount Chung-tiao 4 1 
#£ |Xl in P'ing-yang-fu 2p (^ j^, a prefecture of Shan-si Mj ff : 
he was to be seen constantly travelling between Fen-chow ffr j\\ 
and T sin-chow ^ j\\. He declared he was some centuries old. 
In vain did two of the T'ang Emperors, T'ai-tsung -j^^ (622-650 
A.D.) and Kao-tsung f^ ^ (650-684) invite him to court: he 
refused emphatically all dignities. In the reign of the usurper 
Empress Wu Hon (684-705), he at last agreed to leave his 
retreat but seemed to be struck dead at the door of "The Jealous 
Woman" temple: his body decomposed forthwith and became 
the spoil of worms. But shortly, to the amazement of all men, 
he was to be seen on Mount Heng-chow fa j'\] in P'ing-yang-fu 
^ IH Jft- On his journeys he used to ride a white ass : but he 
had the happy knack of folding up the ass like a sheet of paper 
and laying it aside in a serviette between journeys : the serviette 
could be kept in a travelling bag and the ass could be prepared 
for use by the spraying of a little water from his master's 
mouth. He claimed to have been, in an earlier existence, grand 
vizier of the Emperor Yao (2357 B.C. !). 

In the 23rd year of K'ai-yuan §f] % period (735 A.D.) of 
the T'ang Emperor Hilen-tsung j§* 3£ ^, he was commissioned 
to go to Loh-yang $g. $§ and was elected Grand Officer of the 
Academy with the honorific: "Most perspicacious Master." 

This was the moment when the famous "Tao-shi" Yeh-fa- 
shan |j| ji£ H was, thanks to his magic, in high favour at Court. 
The Emperor asked him: '-"Who is this Chang-kwo?" "I know, 
replied the magician, but if I tell Your Majesty, I shall fall 
dead at your feet — 1 do not dare to speak. But, if Your 
Majesty deigns to give me an assurance that Your Majesty will 
go bare-foot and uncovered to make petition to Chang-kwo-lao, he 
will instantly bring me back to life." Hilen tsung made him 
the promise demanded, and Fah-shan spoke : "Kwo-lao is a preter- 

Fie. 143 

Chang Kwo-lao. 


natural white bat that has issued from the primitive chaos". 

Scarcely were the words spoken when he fell dead. So 
Hilen-tsung went bare-foot and bare-head to suppplicate Chang- 
kwo-lao and ask him for pardon for his indiscretion. Chang- 
kwo-lao sprinkled Fah-shan's face with water and revived him. 
Shortly after, Chang-kwo-lao fell sick and returned to Mount 
Heng-chow fg ji]. He died there in the beginning of the T'ien- 
pao period (742-746) of the same reign. Sometime after his burial, 
his disciples opened his grave but found it empty. (1) 

(1) Cf. T'ai-pHng-hwang-M $z 2p Jg |£ Bk. 30 p.l. 
Kiu-t'ang-shu tt /if if Bk.8 p. 23. 

Ming-yih-t'ung-chi tift — $£ fc Bk.20 p.l.Bk.19. p. 18. 
Mayer's Chinese Reader's Manual, N° 20. 


LAN-TS'Al-HWO jig ££ %U 

The origin of this hermaphrodite is unknown. His fore- 
name was Yang-su ^j| -^ and he lived towards the end of the 
T'ang Jjjf. Here is his style : ragged clothes, a blue cloak, a belt 
made of black wood three inches wide, one foot bare, the other in 
a boot, wearing quilted clothes in summer, in winter he would 
sleep in the snow and his breath went up burning hot like steam 
from a boiling cauldron. A strolling singer, begging his living in 
the streets, he held in his hand a tablet (or a wand) three feet 
long: people at first sight took him for a fool which he was not: 
as he walked, his one boot beat the measure of his song : 



May one on earth his equal find! 

Youth is a plant that tastes a spring, 

The years like weaver's shuttles fly, 

The generations pass nor come again, 

Yet ever men are born more and more. 

If he were given cash, he threaded them on a string and 
dragged them after him or strewed them in the road without 
bothering more about them. His constant refrain was ; 

Who will dare say that man cannot be pregnant? 
So! I have been so these ten months! 

In an inn of Feng-yang-fu ^ p§ ffi (^) in Anhwei he 
got drunk and disappeared in a cloud after first flinging to earth 
his boot, his cloak, his belt and his tablet. (1) 

(t) Cf. Snh-slien-sien-chwan $| jjjijj f|I| ff (T'ai-ping-kwang-ki) Bk.22 p. 6. 
Suh-wen-hsien-t'ung-lao M 3t jgf M sg Bk. 242 p. 14 
Shen-sien-t'ung-Jcicn jjft {|I| M gg Bk. 18 Cp. 6. p. 8 

Fiff. 1 44 

Lan Ts'ai-houo 

Lan Ts'ai-hico. 


In Chinese comedies, Lan-ts'ai-hwo is dressed as a female 
but speaks with a man's voice or vice versa. It is easy to 
understand that this hermaphrodite is the occasion for unpleasant 
ribaldry. (1) 

(1) Lan Ts'ai-hwo Jg ££ 5fp 

The Taoist books give two different accounts of this legendary 

1. According to the Kin-Jcai sin teng ^ J| >£• $=[ Kiien I p. 3. Plate 
(T'u HI) Lan Ts'ai hwo is none other than the Taoist adept Ch'en Ts'i tee $ 
-fc- -f- (also called Ch'en Fuh-hiu |$| fg f /fc ) who was living in the regnal 
period Cheng Yuen 0_ y£ (785-8 05 A.D.) of the T'ang Emperor Teh-Tsung 
J^ l* ^; about that time he was summoned to Court. He went back to 
his hermitage at Pao-cheng ^ J$ to finish his days. 

2, The Annals of the Sub-prefecture of Wu-chih-hsien ^ |&t |g in the 
prefecture of Hwai-Mng (g Ig ffi in Honan, record that 2 3 ?t north of 
Wu-chih-hsien the tomb of the Immortal (female) Lan Ts'ai-hwo is still 
shown in the village of Lan-fung-ts'un ^ $\ 1$. (see Wu-chih-hsien jj^ |5£ 
If Tfe Kiien XIX p. 2 9.) 

This hermaphrodite is sometimes depicted as male, sometimes as 

The characteristic symbol fairly commonly used is the pair of 
clappers (castanets) held between the fingers to play a primitive accom- 
paniment to the singing (Cf. Kiai-tsze-yuan hwa-ch'wan, as above, p. 14.) 


HAN-SIANG-TZE ||£ $f| ^ 

Han-siang-tze whose fore-name is Ts'ing-fu fjij 5^, was the 
nephew of the celebrated Han-yii |f£ ;§£, also called Han t'ui-chi 
$f. il ;£> of the district Nan-yang-hsien ]fo % J|& in Honan (Hi), 
a famous scholar and high officer under the T'ang Emperor 
Hsien Tsung J* |g ^ (806-821 A.D.). Han-siang-tze was as a 
child confided to the care of his uncle for the study of literature 
and preparation for the public examinations. One day he said 
to Han-yii, "My object in my studies is different from yours". 
''What then do you learn?" I learn to make excellent wine 
without any previous matter existing and to call flowers into 
existence on the instant." "Let me see." So Siang-ize put some 
earth in a flower-pot and forthwith there came forth a bouquet 
of perfect peonies of gleaming red: on the petals of these 
flowers, written in gold, were two verses: 

Clouds shroud Ts'in Peak (fif %), where now is my abode? 

Snow is piled on Lan-Kivan (Jj[ gg ) and my horse will not push on 

These two mountains are in Shen-si $fe |f in the district 
of Lan-t'ien-hsien j* EB Jff[. "What", asked Han-yu", is the 
meaning of these verses?" — "You will know in good time." 

Han-yii was sent in disgrace into the prefecture of Ch'ao- 
chow-fu $Jj ')]] Jft, in Kwang-tung Jl ifc. When he had arrived 
at the foot of Lan-kwan Jg |pj, snow fell so heavily that he could 
go no further. Then Siang-tzc appeared to him, swept away 
the snow and opened a road for him. Thus Han-yii came to 
understand the two lines and added eight others himself in 

When Siang-tze parted from his uncle he sent him the 
following verses; "Many, indeed, are the men of name who have 

Fig. 145 

Han Siang-tse. 
Ban Siang-tze. 


served their land, but who midst them is your master in letters? 
You have won the peak of dignities — and now art buried in a 
place of damp and fog." 

And Han-yil on his part bade the nephew farewell in 
verse : "How many here below are drunk for love of honours 
and of gain ! Thou bidest on the straight path, alone and 
watchful : a day shall come when heavenwards soaring, thou shalt 
cleave thyself a passage gleaming midst the azure clouds." 

Han-yil was saddened by the thoughts of exile in a damp 
climate and brooded over the thought that he must die without 
seeing home and family again. But Siang-tze consoled him and 
gave him a drug assuring him that a grain would enable him to 
endure the miseries of that damp. "Not only shall you come 
back in perfect health to your home, but you shall be restored 
to your former dignity". And so it befell. (1) 

According to another account, Han-siang-tze ff; ||| ^f- was 
the grand-nephew of Han-yil |f; ^ : he fled from school and his 
whereabouts were for a long while unknown. If we may trust 
the Ming-yih-t'ung-chi J£j — f£ ±, there is still to be seen in 
Shen-si J$£ ff a grotto called "The Western Cave of Siang-tze ;" 
in it the little truant is said to have hid. His uncle's birthday 
saw him back at home for the celebrations, and the uncle in 
just anger was about to beat him when the youngster said; (2) 
"Don't be annoyed: just give me a little branch and I will make 
flowers blossom on it forthwith." 

Another legend, recorded in the Kiai-tsze-yuen-wah-chwan 
I ^ 1 | | relates that Han-siang-tze after proclaiming 
himself disciple of Lil-tung-pin g -j|^ ^, fell from a peach-tree 
and was killed. After his body underwent a metamorphosis, he 

(1) Cf. Suh-wen-hsien-i'ung-Tcao $f % {$ M :# Bk.242 p. 10. 

(2) Cf. Suh-sien-cMvan $f f(I| % Yuen-lien-leihan. 


Sought out his uncle Han-yii and boasted of his power to create 
an exquisite wine or to produce flowers instantly. And no sooner 
said than done: before his uncle's eyes a cup was filled with a 
fine wine and a bouquet of water-lilies burst into view. (1) 

Now here is the verdict of the scholar Hu-ying-lin j^j fl| 
$| on these proofs of praeternatural power attributed to Han- 
siang-tze. The authority cited is the poetry composed by Han- 
siang's uncle, Han-yii when they were together at the foot of 
the Lan-kwan J* || Mountain. Hu-ying-Un finds those verses 
to be sheer inventions of two works, Yiu-yang-tsa-tsu |§ % $| £R 
and Ts'ing-so-kao-i 7^ J^ "jff[ f}| : and these inventions came to be 
taken as historical truth. Since the inscriptions were in existence 
before Han's banishment to Kwang-tung Jf jfc he cannot then 
have written them. Hu cites in support the T'ang-tsai-siang-shi- 
sih-piao J# ^ $ ■$ H %. 

This book describes Siang-tze as the son of Lao-ck'eng % 
;$, nephew of Han-yii and as having been admitted to the 
degree of Doctor 823 A.D. in the reign of the T'ang Emperor 
Muh-Tsung $ ^ 9^ and later on incorporated in the Ministry 
of Rites. No allusion is made to magical powers. The occasion 
for this legend seems to have been a poem which Han-yii 
addressed once to a nephew of his who lived in Siu-chow-fu %fc 
')]] }{•[. Here are the words: "Who knocks upon my door? 
Ah, 'tis my relative, he that boasts of magic power and of 
probing heaven's works". This person was then his nephew, 
not his nephew's son and his power was mentioned merely as 
that of a diviner, a caster of horoscopes — and so, the poet adds, 

(1) Opus cit. in text Bk. 4 p.8 


"I venture not to enhance your gifts — I have but one desire, 
to see you a loyal officer." There is not question here of the 
grand-nephew on the journey to Kwang-tuvg. So Han-yil does 
not testify to any magic power of Han-siang-tze (1). 

(1) Cf. Eiu-t'ang-shu f| $f ^ Bk. 8. p. 23 

The Annals of the prefecture of Hwai-Mng-fu in Honan <g| |g #f :£-; 
Kiien IV,p. 32, state that Han Siang-tze's grave is 5 li east of Mung-hsien 
]£ % (formerly Eo-yang-hsien), in Ho-nan. 

Most pictures of this personage depict a figure with certain feminine 
traits and with hair tied in a knot such as young girls wear. The type in 
most use is that from the Kiai-tze-yuen hwa ch'wan ^"r -^ |U IE ft? of the 
painter Li lih-wung 2^ 4£ # about the year 167 9. Sz-tsih [/C] ^ p. 8. 

In his account, the author explains the different symbols or "attri- 
butes" by which this immortal may be recognized.. 
He is represented. 

a) With a basket of peaches, because he fell from a peach-tree and 
was killed. 

b) With a basket of flowers, because after coming back to life, he 
caused flowers to spring up suddenly in order to give his uncle proof of 
his preternatural powers. 

c) With a pear-tree beside him in the picture. 


TS«AO-Ii\VOII-KllJ as 

The Empress Ts'ao ^ Jl fe, wife of the Sung Emperor 
Jen-tsung % f- ^ (1023-1064 A.D.) had two younger brothers. 
The elder of these, King-hiu ^ jfo remained aloof from affairs of 
state, the younger King-chih jp; ;fjt was notorious for disorderly 
conduct. Several times had the Emperor ineffectually taken 
him sharply to task: he pursued his course and even went as far 
as homicide. The Imperial Censor was Pao-wen-cheng Q -*£ IE 
(£l tzS) known among the people as Pao-lao-ye & % ffi, a native 
of the district Hoh-fei-hsien £ Jj£ jggi in Lu-chow-fu Jj| f\] #f , in 
the Province Ngan-hwei -$• $fr, haled him before his court and 
condemned him. The elder brother, smarting under this disgrace, 
hid himself in the mountain, made himself a head-covering and 
clothes from the wild-plants and resolved to live the life of a 
perfect hermit. 

One day, Han-chung-U f|| |§ m and Lii-tung-pin g ||sj ^fi 
visited him in his solitude and asked him, "What are you doing 
here?" "I am studying the Way?" "What way? Where is th e 
way?" — The hermit merely pointed to heaven. His visitors 
urged, "Where is this heaven?" — The hermit moved his hand to 
his heart. His visitors smiled and rejoined, "The heart is heaven* 
and heaven is the Way; you have seized the truth." So then 
and there, they imparted to him a prescription for perfection 
and for attaining foremost place amongst the Heroes. By dint 
of intense application, he attained the happy state within a 
few days. (1) 

Another work intitled, Lung-Pu (shen-twan) kun-ngan f| 
EH (f^ Wi) & Hi Bk. 7 p. 1 gives more circumstantial yet more 
legendary details about this pair of brothers. 

There was a graduate, one Yuen-wen-chcng ^ t£ J£ of 
Ch'ao-yang-hsien $] % % (Ch'ao-chow fit -]$) jl'H jft i" Kwang-tung 

(1) Shen-sien-t'ung-kien j$ f|l| M Ug Bk. 18 ch.9 p. 8. 

Fig. 146 

Ts'ao Kouo-kieou. 
Ts'ao Kwoh-kiu. 


Jf ^). He was on his way to the examinations in the capital 
and he had with him his wife whose maiden name was Chang ijjf . 
The younger brother of the Empress caught sight of the woman 
and was fascinated by her beauty , an invitation to the palace 
for husband and wife followed: the husband was strangled and 
the prince endeavoured to force the woman to his will. She 
refused determinedly and at last he had her shut up in a 
deep inaccessible dungeon. But the graduate's soul appeared to 
the Imperial Censor Pao-lao-ye ill^jffi and demanded vengeance 
for this foui crime. The elder brother King-hiu Jp; f;fc seeing 
that the impartial Censor had taken up the case and knowing 
of his brother's guilt, advised him to do away with the woman 
and get rid of all sources of incrimination and so prevent further 
prosecution. The young rake Jp; ^f had the woman flung into 
a deep well but the star T'ai-peh-kin-sing -fr £j ^ j| in the 
figure of an old man drew her out. As she was escaping, she 
met the cortege of a mandarin on the road: thinking it to be 
that of Pao-lao-ye, she advanced and presented her accusation- 
The mandarin however proved to be no other than Ts'ao-Jcing-hiu 
the murderer's elder brother; he did not venture to refuse the 
accusation but on the pretext that the woman had been guilty 
of grave disrespect in not standing aside for his cortege to pass' 
he had her beaten with iron-tipped whips and left her for dead 
in an adjacent lane-way. Again she revives and this time she 
succeeds in reaching Pao-lao-ye. The Censor gets her to draw 
up a formal accusation. He has Ts'ao-kinghiu arrested imme- 
diately, puts him into the pillory, and loads him with chains. 
On top of this, he writes an invitation to Ts'ao-king-cliih: the 
latter comes to find himself confronted with the woman. Pao- 
lao-ye has him thrown into a dungeon and turns a deaf ear to 
the entreaties of Emperor and Empress : within a few days> 
the young murderer's head falls beneath the executioner's sword- 
In order to extricate Ts'ao -king-hiu, the Sung Emperor Jen-tsung 
^M fH ^ then proclaims a sort of jubilee all over the empire by 
which all those in prison are pardoned. On receipt of the edict, 


Pao-lao-yt sets Ts'ao-king-hiu free. This latter finding himself 
as it were risen from death devotes himself to the practice of 
perfection, becomes a hermit and profiting by lessons from a 
Hero, becomes one of the Eight Immortals. 

N.B. Pao-lao-ye fl ^ |f? is honoured in many temples as 
a god of the nether world, the Lord Justice of the other world. 
This function he owes in great part to the above story. 

The Su-chow Annals (1) written in the reign of K'ang-Ki 
(1662-1723) add that in the reign of the Sung Emperor Cheh- 
Tsung % g-^. in the year 1097 A.D., Ts'ao-kwoh-kiu ~§ i gj % 
came to dwell in the temple Yuh-M-kwan 31 jt H, 50 Iis S - E - 
of the sub-prefecture Siao-hsicn ^ $$. 

Historical critique: 

The historian Hu-ying-Un tf] flg f| comments very much 
to the point. The Sung Annals, says he, make mention of 
brothers of the Empress Ts'ao ^lj -Jz fe, wife of the Emperor 
Jen-tsung. The elder's name was Ts'ao-fu "|!f f^ and the younger 
was Ts'do-yih "f| fft. Their father was Ts'ao-pin t|& $£, a high 
dignitary at the court of the Sung Emperors T'ai-tsu (^ ^c fft) 
and T'aUsnng (% ± ^) 960-998 A.D. 

Ts'ao-fu was prefect of Yung-chow |j| >)\\ and received the 
posthumous title Kung-heu ^ -§|. Ts'ai-yih was mandarin under 
the Sung Emperor Jen-tsung and died at the age of 72 ; he was 
canonized as Yih-wang iff 3E- The Annals make no mention of 
his becoming an Immortal: and yet, among those related to the 
Imperial house we find no other personages bearing this name 
"Hf. Hence we have to deal with pure legends for which there 
is no Historical foundation. 

The work Tao-shan-ts'ing-hwa ^M lif M ffj speaks of one 
Ngan-shu ^ ~$fc, so famous for his learning (under the Sung 
Emperor Chen-tsung ^ ^ ^ 908-1023 A.D.) that he was 

(1) Kiang-nan t'ung-clii Sii-chow hsien-chi ^f 1^^ #1 fill ^ Bk. 
58 p. 26 


regarded as a reincarnation of the Immortal Ts'ao-pah-Peh "H A 
"gf : but even if we suppose that this latter worthy ever existed, 
he is not connected with the Imperial family. 

Hence Hu-yin-lin is well justified in concluding that the 
whole story of Ts'ao-kwoh-kiu H gj J§ is purely legendary 
omance. (1) 

(1) Cf, Sung-shi %Z $1 Bk. 258 p. 1: Bk. 242 p. 10: 264 p. 8. 
Hai-yii-ts'ung-J:ao |$ ffc || ;# B. 34 p. 24,25. 


IIO-SIEN-KU <5f 'flJj ^ 

So-sien-ku ^pj -flXf jt,!f was the daughter of one Ho-t'ai ffi ^ 
from the sub-prefecture of Tseng-ch'eng-hsien if $c #$, in 

Kwang-tung ^ 4(. She lived in the time of the Empress Wu-heu 
jfc fe, the usurper during- the Tang dynasty (684-705 A.D.). 
She (diose the mountain Yun-mu-ling, ft -fij: ${ 20 li E. of the 
Tseng-cWeng sub-prefecture for her ahode. This mountain yields 
a stone called "Mother of Cloud Stone:" Yun-mu-shih ft -0J: fi . 
In a dream, a spirit hade her pound this stone up and eat it: 
thus she would attain agility and immortality. She was then 14 
or If) years old. She obeyed and in addition promised never to 
marry. Henceforth she was to be seen flying from one peak 
to another. Every day she brought her mother fruit from the 
mountain. She herself soon felt no longer any need to eat and 
her style of speech became as singular as her behaviour. She 
was invited by the Empress Wu-heu f^ fe to come to court but 
when half-way on the journey, she suddenly disappeared and 
became an Immortal. It was then the King-lu7ig jp; f| period 
of the reign of Chung-tsung |f 41 ^ (707-710 A.D.). (1) 

According to another view, recorded in Liu-kung-fu-shi-hwa 
$\ Jf 3C fffnS her birthplace was Ling-ling ^ §|? in the prefecture 
of Yung-chow-fu tJ< )'\] fft in Hunan $fj jff. She led a vagabond 
existence on the street and high-roads. On her head she had only 
six hairs. One day she ventured into the mountains to get some 
tea : there she lost her way but there came to her help a stranger 
(supposed to be Liu-tung-pin g flsj ^). He gave her a peach 
to eat and showed her the way out of the wild gorges into 
which she had strayed. As soon as she tasted the fruit, she 
was possessed of the gift of foretelling the good or bad fortune 
of other people and soon also received the gift of Immortality. 

(1) Cf. Ming-yih-t'ung-clii Dlj — |ft *£ Bk. 79, p. 7: Bk, 65 p. 32 
Suh-wen-hsicn-t'ung-kao $f % gf M jg Bk. 242 p. 4. 

Ho Sien-kou. 

The Fairy Lady Ho. 

ho-siEN-ktf 57 

This is all dated about the year 710 A.D. under the reign of 

If however we look into the Tseng-teh-cheng-tuh-sing-tsah- 
chi -fl" jg gi $| || $f£ ±, we find that she flourished in the 
Sung period, i. e. three centuries later, under Jen-tmng ^ £ ^ 
(1023-1064 A.D.). 

Here two, we may conclude that there is nothing of certain 
historic fact. Ho-sien-~ku is a heroine of romance or a taoist myth 
of the fairy kind. Even if we suppose her to have existed, we 
cannot accept as facts the deeds attributed to her. 

Other details and texts are preserved in the Hai-yil-ts'ung 
kao p£ ^ ^ ^, Bk 34. 


T'IEH-K\VA1-M jf| UJ ^ 

This Immortal's family name was Li ^ and his surname 
K'ung-muh :JL @- Ri-wan-mu. ]§3i# cured him of an ulcer on the 
leg, taught him the art of becoming an Immortal :he was canonized 
as 'Ruler of the Chinese East." His lady-patron made him a 
present of an iron crutch and commissioned him to find out 
Chung-li-h'tien H ||£ ^fg (Han-chung-li $| il $|) in the capital 
and teach him the science of immortality. (1) 

Pictures of T'ieh-kwai-li are often to be found as the sign 
of a druggist's shop, because he carried a gourd containing magic 
pills: he is remembered as a kind healer. 

The book Shen-sien-tung-kien jjiljj flj jj| gj£ Bk.5, Chap. 1. 
p. 3. identifies T'ieh-kwai-li with Li-ning-yang ^ $£ % who was 
honoured by Lao-tze with an apparition and instructed by him in 
the doctrine of perfection. Shortly after this favour, his soul 
left his bodv for a journey to the mountain Hwa-shan |j| [i|. 
Before his departure, he gave instructions to his disciple Lang- 
ling f$ >fr that if after seven days his soul had not come back, 
the body was to be cremated. Six days had barely elapsed 
when the disciple got news of the illness of his mother; anxious 
to start off to visit her, he burned LA-ning -gang's body prema- 
turely with the result that the soul came back in due time but 
only to find the ashes of its abode. Nearby in a forest a hapless 
wretch had died of hunger: Li-ning- gang's wandering soul found 
the untenanted body, entered by the temples and took possession. 
To his amazement, he found himself possessed of a black face, 
a pointed head, woolly matted beard and hair, huge eyes and a 
crippled leg. At first sight of this dreadful exterior he wanted 
to rid himself of this coating into which he had slipped inadver- 
tently. Lao-tze begged him not to do so and gave him a golden 

(1) Cf. T'ung-lao-ts'uen-shu jfi ^ ^ # (T uen-lung)Wai-kiien p. 18. 

Fig. 148 

T'ie-koai Li. 
T'ieh-kwai Li. 


circlet for his hair and an iron crutch to help his walking. On 
putting his hand to his eyes, Li found his eyes as large as rings; 
hence he came to be called "Hollow-Eyed Li", Li-k'ung-muh ^ 
^L @- Popularly he was called: T'ieh-kwai-li. 

Another legend is to be found in the "Suh-wen-hsien-i'ung- 
too m £ ft ft M Bk. 241 p. 47. 

Li-t'ieh-kwai ^ ^ ^ lived it the time of the Sui dynasty 
(5^ (590-618 A.D.) He was born at Hiah ftfc in Tung-hu-hien }ff 
$JJ J$£ in the sub-prefecture I-ch'ang-fu j£ || ffi in Hu-peh $J| 
4b- His special name was Hung-shui ^t 7k. and his "milk" 
name was Kwai-rh ^ ft ; and he had still another name, T'ieh- 
kwai HJ }jf). He led a hapless existence, roaming through the 
towns, begging a living. In the end, he was seen digging out a 
cave for himself with his iron crutch : he was changed into a 
dragon and flew up to the skies. 

Hu-ying-lin ^ Jjg j$|, the critic of the Immortals, treats 
all this as so much fiction : "no trace of this fabulous personage 
is to be found either in the Histories or in any other serious 
work." Cf. Hai-yii-ts'ung-kao [£% |& H ^ loc. cit. 



Li-pah-peh ^ A If (Li of the Eight Hundreds) supposed 
to have flourished at the end of the Hia J[ (c.1800 B.C.) or the 
beginning of the Chow ffl (1122 B.C.) and reputed to have 
lived 800 years. If he started to move, he covered 800 U at one 
go, hence the name "Eight Hundred." He lived at times 
secluded in the mountains, at times in the towns. He devoted 
himself to the study of alchemy on the mountain llwa-lin-shan 
l| # lli. 10 li N.E. of the town of Shui-chow-fu Iffi j'\] /ft in 
Kiang-si £q W- In the reign of the Chow Emperor Muh 1$% 
(1001 to 946 B.C.) he dwelt on the mountain ^ ^ lli Kin-t'ang- 
shan by the banks of the torrent ^ ^ Kin-t'ang in the prefecture 
Ch'eng-tu $ % in Sz-chhvan )\\. 

He learned that T'ang-hung-fang $ Q |$ prefect of Han- 
chung-fu ^ 4 1 ffl in tne reign of Wang Mang 3£ 3j^ the Usurper 
(0,^ sir 9-23 A.D.) was looking for an experienced master: so 
he betook himself with all speed to Shen-si ^ || to offer his 
services. Shortly after his arrival, his whole body was afflicted 
with such an ulcer that no one ventured to come near him. "My 
malady", said he to Kung-fang, "can be cured only if some one 
licks this ulcer." So Kung-fang got three servants to do the 
repulsive service. But Li declared : "Servants won't do : it must 
be done by a wise man". So Kung-fang himself complied but 
Li now demanded that the prefect's wife must do the same as 
her husband. Kung-fang ordered his wife : but when she had 
obeyed, the cure did not come. Thereupon Li of the Eight 
Hundreds demanded three hundred thousand quarts of excellent 
wine in which he would bathe. The devoted Kung-fang satisfied 
his request and this time, Li was cured: he came forth from 
the bath hale and hearty without a trace of his previous 

"Know, "said Li to Kung-fang," that I am an Immortal : 
I knew that you were in want of a master and I came to put 

Fig. 149 

Fig. 450 

Liu-tong-pin. Han-tchong-li. Ho-sien-kou. Tchang-ko-lao. 

Lu Tung-pin. Han Chung-li. The Fairy Goddess Ho. Chang-kwo-lao. 


you to the test — to see if you were worth teaching. Now, I 
shall teach you the recipe for Immortality." 

Then he ordered Kung-fang, his wife and the three 
sarvents, to take a bath in the wine into which he had plunged: 
all of them in turn came forth glistening with freshness and 
youth. Then he presented Kung-fang with a book of magic 
(tan-king ft $g) with which he could compound the draught of 
immortality. On Yiln-i'ai Mount H ^ (JL| at Ts'ang-ki-hsien Jf 
M M- in the prefecture of Pao-ning-fu j% ^ Jft in tiz-clVwan py 
J||, this latter drank the drug and found Immortality. (1) 

In these fairy tales there is patent absurdity and contra- 
diction. Li was already 800 years old under the Chow f^ 
Emperor Muh-wang f| £, c. 1000 B.C.; he was still only 800 
years old in 8 A.D. when under the Western Han "® $| he 
took service with Kung-fang: and in the 10th century A.D. 
under the Sung Emperor T'ai-tsung 7^ ic ^ he was still the 
same — in the Sung Annals 5fc i£ we find that a certain high 
official Clven-isung-sin ^ $£ ^@ from Yimg-ch'eng-hsieu jfc $c M 
in the prefecture of Kwei-teh-fu §| ?§ )ft (Honan) became his 
disciple but was soon disillusioned. 

— History is not written in such contradictory variants: 

— Li-Rh ^ 5 (See life of Tao-tze) 

— Chang-tao-ling ^ ^f H (See his life; article IX) 

Yung ch'eng. %$. $ 

This personage claimed to have been at one time the 
Master of Hwang-ti fifii and a high dignitary in that monarch's 
court. The Suh-wen-hsien-Pung-kao ^ # J| M % adds a typical 
detail viz. that about 1010 B.C. in the reign of the Chow 
Emepror Muh % he came back to this world. He had the useful 
gifts of renewing youth, of changing to black the white heads 

(1) Shen-sien-chwan jjifftllfll {Tai-ping-lwang-M Bk. 7. p. 6) Ming-yih- 
t'ung-shi BJJ — $ ■& Bk. 34 p. 39, 22. 


of elders and of making their missing teeth grow again. Later 
on, he became Lao-tze's master. 

Tung chniig slm H # # 

Born at Kwang-ch'wan ^ )\\, 30 li E. of Tsao-kiang-hsien 
l&'x&M in Chihli ft |i (M 4b)- From the Ch'un-ts'iu ^ $fc we 
learn that while still a youth he was a mandarin: he was a sage 
of the time of King-Pi f; $? (156-140 B.C.) 

His practice was to probe the laws of nature by 
examining any extraordinary or calamitous events that occurred. 

Yeu-kittu-p'iiig Jg M ¥ 

His other name was Tsun i§|. He was born at Lin-k'iiing 
$$, J5 m the present prefecture of K'iung-chow Jft >)]] in Sz-ch'wan 
ffl Jl|. According to the Yih-king ^ %& he used to practise as 
a professional fortune-teller on the streets of Ch'eng-tu jfc ^1$> 
the provincial capital, and on earning a hundred cents, he 
would return home. During his youth he studied under the 
master Yang-yung j§j jjjji, a hermit who dwelt on the south of the 
Min Mountain |1^ in Sz-ch'wan, in the Yuen-ting period ?t }$\ 
(116-110 B.C.) of the Han Emperor's reign, Wu Ti j£ ifr. 

Fail Chaug Sheu M -^ H 

No document known to me. 

Ko yuiig-kwei J| tJ< 5ft; 

The Wan-sing-t'ung-pu H #li M Iff assures us that he 
was also known as Koh-sien-wung ^ f|lj f| and that he lived 
under the Tsin ^ (255 to 206 B.C.). 

The Ming-yih-tung-shi B£) — |£ j±- tells us that a mountain 
Ko-yung-kwei-shan || ^ Ij| |Jj in the prefecture Ch'eng-tu }fc 3$> 
4o /( N. of P'ang-hsien $£ J|£ got its name as memorial of the 

Fig. 152 

Lan-ts'ai-houo. Tsao-kouo-kieou. 
Lan Ts'ai-hwo. Tsao Kwoh-kiu. 

Tie-koai-li. Han-siang-tse. 

Tieh Kwai-li. Han Siang-tze. 


gift of Immortality given to Ko-yung-kwei while he lived on 
the mountain. 

Reference Books: 

Wan-sing-t'ung-pu U #£ 3§ H Bk. 117 p. 1 : Bk. 2 p. 20 

Bk. 67 p. 1. 

Suh-wen-hsien-t'ung-kao g[ # jgg j§ % Bk. 241 p. 9. 
lleu-han-shu # $| # (£fe T below 82) p. 7. 
Ts'ien-han-shu ift g| * Bk. 56 p. 1 : Bk. 72 p. 1. 
Shang-yiu-luh ft ^ $| Bk. 10 p. 22. 

General Conclusion. 

1. The legend of the "Eight Immortals" does not go 
farther back than the Yuan dynasty, or at very most it may 
come from the end of the Southern Sung, that is, the last half 
of the 13th century A.D. 

2. Of the "Eight", only three are genuinely historical 
personages : viz. Han-chung-li, Chang kwo-lao, Lil-tung-pin. Re- 
liable historical sources that refer to these three, have never 
made allusion to any praeternatural power possessed by them. 

3. These legends often are at logger-heads with chronolo- 
gical sequence : e.g. Ho-sien-ku had died before the birth of 
Lil-tung-pin, yet the story-teller tells us that she owed her 
safety when she was lost in the mountains, wholly to the magic 
peach given her by the Immortal Lit. 

The first series of plates representing these Immortals 
singly as travelling over the sea on various sea monsters are 
called popularly "Pah-sien-piao-hai A f[lj f|f #|". The second 
series depicts them in couples with their distinctive symbols. 

Few subjects have been so often represented by Chinese 
artists as these Immortals. The experienced eye will often be 
able to recognize them on vases, cups, tea-pots, fans and 
pictures. We have therefore reproduced different specimens 
which may be helpful for memorising the types. 


L1U-HA1-S1EN (T.B.) C 

Si] * fill 


This Immortal is usual represented with one of the 
following- attributes : 

a) He holds in his hand a motley string to which is tied a 
Shan $i, a three-legged toad (an emblem of money-making). 

b) He wears an oblique sash made of eggs and gold pieces 

strung together. 

The following legend will explain these attributes. 

1. Name and Legend. 

There is no agreement as to his name, much less as to 
his acts and deeds. 

A. According to Lu-tsu-is'uen-shu g f§ & ^ Bk. 1, p. 19, 
his clan name was Lii fllj and his personal name Ts'ao $|. He 
was said to have been a Minister of State under T'ai-tsu -fc |§ 
Fou li 1 M&iM m tne y ear 916 A.D. when the latter proclaimed 
himself emperor of the Liao j§f£ or Ki-tan §o J*\. Lit afterwards 
left court and buried himself in a mountain solitude between 
Chung-nan-shan ffe ~$) lJL| and T'ai-hwa-shan •% ijfi lij in the 
prefecture of Si-ngan-fu ^ # /ff in Shen-si g£ ]ffF. 

B. The Shen-sien-l'iing-kien %$ f[Jj 5§ gg Bk. 18 Ch. 3. gives 
his clan name as Lin-hai fllj #$, his own name as Ts'ao ^ with 
a fore-name Tsung-ch'eng 9j? $• (1) Liu-hai flj $ was originally 
from Peh-king 4b M (4b ¥) in Ghih-li jl fj$ (pj 4b). Peking was 

(1) The Kwang-yu-hi ^ ^ IE Bk. 6 p. 37 gives his fore-name as 
Chao-tah Bg jH 


called of old Yen-shan ^5 ]\\ and was the capital of the little 
kingdom of Yen $&. 

This Liu became a minister under Liu-sheu-kwang $!lj ^ ^ 
king- of Yen j^j. 

Nature and Destiny were the ordinary topics of his 
discourse and he honoured the old emperor Hwang-ti ^ ^ and 
Lao-kiiin. He, one day, received a visit from Cheng-yang-tze jE 
jf^ ^-, the Illumined (to wit, the Immortal Han-chung-li ^| f§ 
jH) and the reception of the visitor took place in the state 
apartment. The visitor set himself to building up a pile of ten 
eggs one on top of another but each time with a piece of 
gold between. (1) 

"That is a hazardous business", cried Liu-hai. "Yes, but 
less ticklish than being minister to that prince of yours", was the 
retort. The host immediately cut short the interview, and Ts'ao 
^ took the hint. He presented himself before Kwang ^£, king 
of Yen, who had usurped the title of emperor and upbraided him 
with his act. (2) As the king turned a deaf ear to his remons- 
trance, \n accordance with Chinese practice pleaded illness in 
order to surrender his seals and resign. He changed his name 
to Hilen-ying 3£3&: the Tao-shi call him," "Hai-shan-tsze" $| $i 
<^p, the Sea-toad. He then started to travel in search of perfec- 
tion and meeting with Lil-shun-yang g jffc % (viz. the Immortal 
Lil-tung-pin g ^ §^) he got the recipe for changing gold 
secretions into pills of immortality. 

The Yuan yfc Emperor Shun-Ti Jlf( iff in the 6th year of 
Chi-yilan jg j£, 1340 A.D. conferred on him the posthumous title: 
"Loyal Prince of Intelligence that searcheth the great Doctrine." 

(1) Hence the bandolier worn by Liu-hai in Chinese pictures, 
2) The T'unglien-Tcang-muh Iffg, Bk. 54 p 43, says that the 
Emperor T'ai-tsu ;fc iffl of the Later Liang @£ §£ had granted Liu slieu- 
Tcwang the title of King of Yen in the 3rd year of the K'ai-p'ing period ffl 
2^ 909 A. D, and that the king Sheu-hwang ^ % usurped the title of 
Emperor in the first year of ''Kien-hwa" $£ -f£ 911 A. D. 



2. An Apparition of Liu-hai. 

The following legend is taken from the book : Mung-lai-fu 
(fung-hia-pih-t'an) ;£ $ ft (M H& ^ ^) P- 44. 

At Su-ehow |ft j]\ outside the Ch'ang Gate |gj f*\ there 
dwelt in the Nan-hao ^ y|| suburb, a man called Pei-hung-wen 
H % -3^. This family lived by commerce and in it virtue had 
been held in honour from generation to generation. In the first 
year of the reign of Ivang-hi J|£ $E, 1662 A.D., a young stranger 
who gave his name as Ngo-pao ppj ^ knocked at the door of Pel's 
house and asked for work. He was given employment and 
proved to be very industrious. After a month or so, he was 
offered his wages but declined to take it. Moreover it had 
been noticed that sometimes he did not take any food for days 
together without for all that suffering inconvenience ; all the 
inmates of the house bore astonished witness to this strange 
trait. One day he was given the task of cleaning the night- 
vessels (1) ; in an instant he had turned them inside out, just 
like a football cover; the witnesses of this device were of course 
still more amazed. 

On the fifteenth day of the first Chinese month, the 
Lantern festival, (2) the stranger took his master's child out in 
his arms to show him the illuminations : suddenly he disappeared. 
The family was most anxious. But he turned up in the third 
watch. (3) The master scolded him roundly. 

(1) Two kinds are in use. One of the "commode" type, serving for 
stool: the other of the urine-flask type as used for sick-beds in our 
countries. It is this latter, made of earthenware and indeed difficult to 
keep clean, of which there is question in the narrative. 

(2) Kwo siao-nien 3$ /\> $fc (Spending the little New Year. See above 
Vol. V Art IV p. 642 (Engl, trans). 

(3) The night is divided into six watches of two hours each. Those 
who have lived in Chinese cities will have a vivid memory of the drum 
beats wandering about all right announcing the watch: e. g. three taps 
for the third watch. 

Fig. 153 

Lieou hai sien. Cette image est affich^e dans les demeures comme un talisman pr^serva- 

teur et porte-bonhe'ur. 
The Immortal Liu-hai. This picture is affixed in families as a protective and luck- 
bearing talisman. 


"But why," replied the supposed servant," do you get 
angry ? This year the Lantern Feast has been wretched all over 
China: only at Fuh-chow fg ]>\], the capital of Fuhkien f| %£ 
has it been a success so I took your child there to see it. They 
refused to give credence to this as Su-chow is hundreds of li from 
Fuh-chow. Thereupon the child produced half a score of Li 
die's ffi, ffi (2) freshly plucked and offering them to his parents 
bade them taste the fruit. Then they understood that the 
stranger was an Immortal. 

Some months later on, he caught a three-legged toad 
when he was drawing water from the well. He tied it with a 
parti-coloured cord several feet long, put it on his shoulder and 
went home leaping with joy. ."This animal had escaped : .1 have 
been looking for it in vain for many a year and to-day at last I 
have caught it". So all round the neighbourhood the tidings 
spread that Liu-hai was in the house of the Pei J=|, family : an 
immense crowd assembled. Then Liu-hai raised his hands to 
thank his master Pei and from the middle of the courtyard went 
up into the air and disappeared. The door of this dwelling in 
Su-chow is still noted by people passing as a souvenir of an 
Immortal's visit. 

Since Liu-hai wears a string of coins, his help is sought 
for the success of business transactions. 

Images of Liu-hai with his frog (see fig. 153) are intended 
for pasting up, one on each of the side-posts of a door so that 
the one faces the other. Our figure 153 is suitable for the fifth 

(2) Nephelium punicum Li-che (as above or Di ^: aiso ft ^ Tan die). 
Greatly esteemed. Trees said to live hundred of years. A small fruit 
with a light shell, marked with a shagreen pattern: the shape is round, 
inside is an oblong nut surrounded by a white fleshy substance that is at 
its best very juicy and pleasant. It does not ripen north of Fuh-kien. Li- 
chees cannot be got as early as the Chinese first month. May is the 
beginning of their season. 


of the fifth month (1) as the inscriptions refer to the "the 
muywost (3t) leaves increasing the five blessings by their 
breath" and charms written red with peach-wood being the 
happy cause of the Three "superfluences" (good-luck, old-age, 
male issue)." Above is the "Pah Kwa" with the command that 
the diagram should fix for ever good-weal (tJ< |jl ^p $£). 

(1) Chinese Superstitions (English Ed.) Vol. V p. 646,732: 717. 



The following account of Chang-iao-ling will hardly 
support attempts to find in such a charlatan a parallel for the 
first holder of the Papacy. To-day the mere statement of the 
historical facts should suffice to make such companion odious. 
These facts are to be found, (1) in the Taoist books and in 
certain other works that have dealt with his life, (2) in the 
general histories of China, (3) in the records of the Three 
Kingdoms Period which mention him and his descendents as living 
in that period. 

I, Chang-tao-ling, according to the Taoist Books and 
Works of other writers. 

According to "More Divine Beings", (1) Chang 4'ien-shi 
H 3i BrP would be a descendent of Chang-liang |jj| & in the 
eighth generation (2). 

(1) Chung-tseng-sheu-shen-Tci % i£ ^ Jf4 IE n Part > P- 58 etc 

(2) (Note) It will be remembered that Chang-liang was from Eonan 
province, being born in Yii-chow :jg 'H] in the prefecture of K'ai-fung-fu ffl 
$] Jfr- When he saw that the kingdom in which he was born, had fallen 
into the hands of the Ts'in ^ dynasty, he attempted in vain to avenge 
the wrongs of his couutry and then enlisted under the victorious standard 
of Liu-pang %\ f[S, founder of the Han M who ousted the Ts'in %. In 
return for his services, the title of "Duke" jg ^ was conferred upon him. 
Chang-liang thereupon retired from political life and sought out the sorcerer 
Ch'ih-sung-tsze # & -f- to obtain from him the secret of living without 
food and of spiritualizing his body. The empress Lii-heu g J^ held him 
in high esteem and constrained him to eat, much indeed against his will 
as he could not refuse such a high personage. Eight years afterwards he 
died. His grave is at P'ei-hsien fr|i % in the prefecture of Sii-chow-fu '{£ #1 
}ff in Kiang-su U M- He is known as % J& ^ Duke Perfect Gentleman. 



His birth is given as taking place in the tenth year of 
Kwang-wu-ti % ^ ifr i.e. 35 A.D. And the birth-place is said to 
have been Mount T'ien Muh Ji g mj, Mount Heaven's Eye at 
IAn-ngan-hsien ffi % % in the prefecture of Hang-chow jft )>\] Jft 
in Cheh-kiang $£ fa. There are other opinions which we shall 
see to be more likely. 

Henceforth he devoted himself to magic and lived on 
Peh-mang-shan ft tfi [lj to the north of Honanfu fpf ]f Jft, capital 
of the Ho-nan. In vain the emperors Chang-ti ^ ffi (76-88 
A.D) and Hivo-ti %j %? (89-106 A.D.) invited him to their court. 
After pilgrimages to the most famous mountains, he came at 
last to the If $j} g|, the stream Yiin-kin ft fg (cloud-brocade) 
at Hing-ngan-hsien igj. % $£, in the ^ -jg fff, Kwang-sin subpre- 
fecture in Kiangsi fa ]JEf. From the mountain heights around 
the torrent, his eye ranged over a wonderful view and he 
proceeded to follow up the course of the stream until he arrived 
at a grotto, Yiin-kin-tung f| ^ p|. Here he worked at alchemy 
for three years until the consummation of the mysterious union 
of blue dragon and white tiger, whereupon Chang -tao-ling succeded 
in producing the pill of immortality. Upon eating this, his 
face, though he was sixty years of age, became as fresh as that 
of a boy. Moreover he received as a special mark of divine 
favour a mystic book containing all sorts of recipes for spiritua" 
lizing oneself, changing shape at will, or driving away devils 
and goblins. Finally he left Kiangsi for Szech'wan )\\ where 
he took up his abode on the "Cloud Terrace" Mountain Yun 
T'ai ft jf at Ts'an-ki-hsien |f $| f| in the Pao-ning Prefecture 
^ 3|?. ffi. From this mountain he rose to heaven. He left as 
heirlooms his magic-book, a collection of charms, his seal and 
his magic-sword. 

His son was named Chang-heng ^M Hr> his grand-son 
Chang-lu ^ iff-, his great-grand- son Chang-shing 3j| $£. This 
last came back again to live on the Lung-Jin Mountain f| ^ iJj. 
in the Kwei-k'i subprefecture jit ('Hi!?, .belongings to Kwang-sin- fu 
Jf fa jft in Kiangsi fa H- The title of Chen- j en j|| A : "Hero" 


or "Perfect men" belongs to the head of the family in each 

The account given in the "Biographies of Genii and 
Immortals "Shen-sien-chwan jjif -fill M B1< - 4 - P- 8 > is as follows : 
Chang-tao-ling was originally a native of petty kingdom P'ei fjff 
in Ngan-hwui -^ ^ (to the N. E. Nan-siu-chow in the Fung-yang 
prefecture Jf^ p§ #f). (1) He was a distinguished scholar, fully 
possessing the national literature. One day he burst into a 
sigh — "What use is literature for prolonging one's life!" — and 
fortwith abandoned letters for alchemy. He sought instruction 
in the recipes by which Hwang-ti ji ^ had once upon a time 
concocted his exilir. Determining to devote himself to the 
preparation of this wonderful draught, Chang was quickly brought 
to a halt by the cost of the necessary ingredients. 

He could not count upon his family and relatives for the 
expenses of his researches in alchemy, for he was of the poor 
farmer class that lived from hand-to-mouth by tilling or cattle- 
rearing. Hearing however that the people of Sze-chivan were 
simple and credulous and that there were many famous moun- 
tains in that land, he betook himself there with a train of 
followers and reached Hoh-ming Mount $| % jjj in the Ta-yih 
district ^ §} % (under K'iung-chow Jfl j'\]). There he composed 
his book of magic recipes in 24 chapters. Just as he had resolved 
upon starting to compound his pille of immortality, there 
appeared a heavenly messenger with a long train of mounted 
men. A parasol was borne in front of this notable who was seated 
in a golden chariot while his followers rode tigers and dragons. 

This visitor announced himself as Chu-hsia-she $-. ~f $* 
or Lao-tsze ^ ^ or as Tung-hai-siao-i'ung ^ #| >|, j| "the Youth 
of the Eastern Sea." He imparted to Chang certain secrets 
and wondrous recipes for the cure of all manner of ailments. 
Chang soon succeeded in overawing the common folk who called 

(1) V. Ti-li-yun-pien ■}& ^ fjl fg N. B. Now at Kiang-su 


him "Master; his pupils could now be counted by hundreds of 
thousands. Faced with this vast body of disciples, Chang-too- 
ling devised a regular hierarchy and he published regulations 
by which his disciples took it in turn to go about requisitioning 
rice, utensils, paper, writing-brushes, firewood and the like. 
He also used his position to get the people to open up 
roads, and mend bridges: disobedience brought the infliction 
on the recusant of an illness as a punishment. From that time 
on, everybody rendered him absolute obedience. These simple 
folk were persuaded that Chang had a mission from Heaven thus 
to command their service. He himself took good care to foster 
the idea. 

Chang led these multitudes more by their sense of shame 
than by punishments. According to his instructions anyone 
suffering from a malady, had to write act a confession of all the 
faults he had committed during his whole life and then holding 
the document in his hand, plunge it into water and swear before 
the Spirits never to commit these faults again. Such a one had 
also to pledge his life as guarantee of his sincerity. Thanks to 
this device, the people began to regard maladies as the conse- 
quences of sins and were ashamed to go back to sinful ways. 
It was a sort of "revival in which fear held people back from 

Chang-tao-ling netted substantial gain from this procedure 
— he charged five bushels of rice for treating a case of sickness: 
hence he won the nick-name of Rice-thief ^ $$. which the 
people of Szech'wan were not slow to bestow upon him. When 
he had thus secured the necessary resources, he set himself 
again by means of alchemy to compound the pill of immortality. 
On achieving the task, he ate of the pill only one half as he did 
not wish yet to enter heaven but chose rather to enjoy several 
personalities at once down here on earth. One of these 
personalities henceforth spent its time boating on a lake in 
front of his dwelling. 



The adepts (the Tao-she) and other visitors flocked to 
see him. These were received by one of his "selves" which 
entertained them and spoke with them while the real Chang-tdo- 
ling stayed out on the lake. The visitors got the following 
advice : "You cannot, like me, renounce the world and quit it 
but surely you could imitate me in regulating your family. If 
you do so, you shall obtain the favour of drinking a potion 
that will add some centuries to your life. As for Hwang-ti's 
crucible," (that is, the apparatus reputed to have been used by 
the Emperor for concocting his elixir), "I have given it to my 
disciple, Wang-chang 3E -ft- Later on, there will come from 
Eastern lands one who shall take it for his use : his arrival 
shall be on the seventh day of the first moon". He then 
proceeded to trace the portrait of this new-comer in advance. 
Exactly on time, Chao-sheng j$l 1$. arrived from the East; he it 
was whom Chang -tao -ling had announced. 

The latter then led all his disciples to the highest peak 
of Yiin-l'ai ft <|f. At their feet, from out a sheer rock-face, 
these grew a peach-tree : it reached out like a man's arm over 
an abyss : it was now laden with the peaches. The Master then 
spoke. "I will teach deep mystery to anyone of you who has 
the courage to gather these peaches." These were three hundred 
disciples there, yet no one volunteered, until Chao-sheng $§ .ff- 
leaped boldly down from the rock-peak upon the tree that 
stretched out into space : his foothold was sure and at once he 
began to gather much fruit as he could stow away in his clothes. 
But now came the problem of the ascent. On the slippery rock 
his hands could find no grips and he had to lighten himself of 
his burden of fruit by flinging then up to the company above ; 
there were three hundred and two peaches. Tao-ling distributed 
the peaches : each ate one and Tao-ling kept one over for Chao- 
sheng. To assist this later to regain the group, Tao-ling stretched 
down his hand, extending it miraculously some thirty feet. 
After Chao-sheng had come up and had eaten his peach. Chang- 



Tao-ling looked down the precipice and said with a smile, 
"Chao-sheng has been able to jump down courageously upon 
that tree and his foot did not stumble : ''I will try it myself 
and I shall have the right to get a big peach." No sooner said 
than done — but now he was followed by Wang-chang 3E -^ and 
Chao-sheng. One stood on each side of the master and thus the 
two were taught there by him the mysteries of his doctrine. 
Three days after this revelation, they returned to their homes, 
made final arrangements and then came back to the mountain 
where all three disappeared in full midday into the sky while 
the others were looking on. 

The book Shang-yiu-luh $ % % (b. 4 p. 9) furnishes 
additional details. Chang -tao-ling' s name was Fu-han || -jH : 
when he was seven years old, he understood the Tao-teh-hing 
M W^ Wl an d a ^ tne l° re °f earth, water and the stars. He 
lived the life of a hermit on Peh-mang Mountain 4b t\] (jj, north 
of Ho-nan-fu pj ~[$ ffi. A white tiger brought a charm between 
his teeth and laid it at Chang -Tao-Ung's feet. The Emperor 
Chang-ti ^ ffi 76-89 A. D. invited him to court: Hwo-ti %} tfr 
89-106 A.D. repeated the invitation three times, wished to take 
him as teacher, and even promised him the title of Duke of 
Ki-hsien. But Chang could not be tempted : he went to 
Szechwan and lived as a solitary on Mt. Hoh-ming g| P| \]j 
(Ta-yih-hsien ^ q M sub-prefecture dependant on K'iung Chow 
Jft j'\]). He was the teacher of Wang-chang 3£ -J| who was well 
versed in astrology and had entered into the secrets of Hwang-ti 
jir tft (1) and Lao-tsze j£ ^. 

(1) Hwang ti's skill. He had received from the Master Ts'ing-lc'iu ^ 
ft 7 , the works of the first three Emperors and a treatise on astrology. 
From his master Jiivang-ch'engtsze ^ Jj£ -f- he had got the magic retort 
for making the pill that conferred the gifts of spiritualisation and of flying 
in the air. Yiint'ai ff H gave him magic spells by which he could use 
dragons and tigers as mounts, viz. rao-p'u-tszechen-yun fe ft -f- ^ $£. 
Cf. Lou-she-keou-ki? 



Chang -Tao-ling and his pupil spent three years in common 
composing the compound entitled: "Of the Dragon and the 
Tiger." A blue dragon and a white tiger kept watch over the 
crucible in which the concoction of the drug was going on. On 
finishing the task, Chang took the drug and his old age was 
forthwith changed into fresh youth. 

One day, Chang was on a visit to Mt Sung ^ |Xj , the 
Sacred Mountain of the North, about 10 li to the north of 
Teng-fung-hsien $£ ^ % in Honan. Another name for the 
mountain is Shell (Mansion) 1g because there is a grotto or 
house of rock in its side. Here it was that Chang received his 
message from the gold-clad Ambassador. In a cavern hollowed 
out in middlemost of the mountain's three peaks, there were the 
books of the first three emperors, Hwang-ti's crucible and the 
alchemy formulas of the "Three Pure Ones": with the help of 
these he was to make the Pill of Immortality which he should 
eat and then mount up to the heavens. Tao-ling first underwent 
purificatory ceremonies and then made his way into the grotto 
as indicated : he found there the recipe for the famous pill which 
he succeeded in producing. So he acquired the power of 
bilocation and of invisibility. Once he heard strains of heavenly 
music from on high. Lao-isze % ^ forthwith came down to 
earth upon the summit of i§ % jJLj and spoke with Tao-ling: 
"Just now, six huge demons are assailing the inhabitants of 
Szechwan. Go and master them : it will bring you immeasurable 
merit and your name shall be for ever engraved on this mountain. 
Take from my hands this mysterious book, this epitome of the 
prayers of "the Three Pure Ones", also this collection of charms, 
further spells for the pill of immortality, this pair of sabres, 
one of which is male and the other female, this seal possessed 
every virtue of this hat, dress, chequer-apron and red sandals. 
Let me appoint my next meeting with you for a thousand days 
hence, in the Grotto of the Immortals in the K'wan-lun moun- 
tains % $ iJj." 


Chang accepted the gifts. By help of these, he marshalled 
thirty-six thousand spirits and led them to Ts'ing-ch'eng Mountain 
"pf $c ill in Kican-hsicn ^ $£ (Clrcng-tu-fu jfcfflffi in Szechwan). 
He made prisoners of the generals of the eight departments of 
devils and slew their six great kings. After this exploit he 
betook himself with Wang-chang to Mt Yun-t'ai m 3S their 
residence on Mt Lung-hu f | )% |Xl in Kiang-si yX M- 

This Taoistic legend is confirmed (or rather repeated) by 
the history T l ung-kien-kang-muli (cheng-pien) }j| §gf |S) @ (IE f§) 
Bk. 24 p. 83 Kang-muh-chih-shih M B M M witl1 tlle addition 
of some curious features. Before mounting to the heavens, 
Chang -tao-ling called a halt half-way up Mt. Yun-t'ai, struck 
boldly into the granite-face of the mountain and making a 
passage for himself came out at the very peak. Thus he was 
responsible for two caves in the Mountain: one half-way up, 
"The High Cave of the Immortal": one on the ridge, "The plane 
Cave of the Immortal." 

II. Chang-Tao-ling in history 

The account given by the official history of China "Tse- 
che-t'ung-kien-kang-muh % \ £ jg gjg $pjj g runs as follows : — 

Chang-Tao-ling was a descendant in the eighth remove 
from Chang-leang jjl & marquis of Liu fg $|, minister of Liu- 
pang |pj i|$, founder of the Han family fj|. Born on Mt. 
T'ien-muh ^ g Jj, "Heaven's Eye Mountain", he learned the 
art of making pills of immortality and took up his abode on the 
Dragon-Tiger-Hill f| ffi llj in Kiang-si. jX Hf The Emperors 
Chang-ii ^ ft (76-89 A. D.) and Hwo-ti ftj it 89-106 A. D. made 
fruitless attempts to attract him to court. He made various 
journeys in an attempt to find a perfect solitude. In the course 
of these wanderings he came upon the grotto Yun-kin-tung |j| 
$^ -][p| in which an immortal was then busying himself with 
alchemy. So he devoted three years to the elaboration of an 
elixir: at last the happy combination of Blue Dragon and White 


Tiger solved the problem. Chang -Tao-ling, already sixty years 
old, regained his youth on tasting the elixir. He also fell in 
for a bequest of talismans and magic-books whose spells enabled 
him to do Protean changes, to banish demons and work trans- 
formations in others at his will. 

Chang, on leaving his laboratory-cave went off to Mt. 
Hoh-ming (Crane Cry)$| % ill in Sz'ch'wan pj )\\ where he lived 
as a hermit immersed again in researches into the secrets of 
alchemy. To make a livelihood, he carried on a medical practise 
in which his fee for each case was five bushels of rice: hence 
the nick-name, "Rice-thief." 

Lao-kiiin %■ jg (Lao-tsze) himself bestowed on him a 
work containing charms still more potent than he yet possessed : 
so with some choice companions he delved still deeper into the 
mysteries of alchemy. By 156 A.D. he had attained a high 
degree of perfection and was almost completely purged of baser 
matter : so he pushed into Mt. Yiin-T'ai and passed out by the 
summit leaving the two caves. 

That same year, on the 9th day of the 9th, Lao-tsze j£ ^ 
now sent him a heavenly messenger charged with this message : 
"You have overstepped the mean in your massacre of the devils 
and as a punishment the Supreme Being is prolonging your 
earthly existence by three thousand six hundred days. I will 
await you in the palace of Shang-ts'ing J^ |pf ". 

Tao-ling escorted by his disciple Wang-chang and by 
Chao-sheng, retired to Mt. Hoh-ming and spent some twenty years 
as hermit there. One day about mid-day he was visited by a 
redrobed messenger from heaven, inviting him on behalf of the 
Gods to the Palace of the Immortals. Tao-ling mounted his 
carriage and reached the Palace. A party of the Immortals 
came forth to meet him but alas ! he was not yet ripe enough to 
understand their language (1). So he had to be brought back 

<1) Cf. the story below of Htvui-nsni-tsse (Article XX1Y ad finem). 


to earth again on Mt. Yang-p'ing % zfc (Jj . Then he handed 
over to Chang-heng his son, all his magic equipment, recipes 
for immaterialization, aerial flying, his amulets, books, seal and 
his two sabres for decapitating demons. "Take," said he, "this 
precious gifts, kill demons, chase off hobgobbins, protect the 
kingdom, bring peace to the people and let my dignity pass from 
father to son without ever leaving the family". 

In the reign of the Han Emperor Hwan-ti fj| ;jff ^ 157 
A. D. one mid-day Chang-Tao-ling, accompanied by his wife, nee 
Yung 3£jt j£, his pupil Wang-ckang and by Chao-sheng |g J|- went 
up to heaven from the summit of Yiin-t'ai f| jf ill : he was 123 
years of age. 

After his death, Chang-hing carried on the magic and 
transmitted the profession to his own son Chang-lu jjj| iff-. This 
latter had himself entitled Master-Prince and called his adherents 
"Demon-Soldiers" over whom he set chiefs called "Libationers,'' 
"Directors". His gang was only a branch of the rebels known 
as Yellow Turbans. The central authority was helpless at the 
moment : and so obliged to endure what they could not cure 
they gave him the title of Prefect of Han-ning ^ 3p, now Pin- 
chow % >}\\ and Hing-ning-hsien $& ^ J$£ in Hu-nan $J] ^. 

The other books of history add that he was a man of no 
particular merit. It was in the reign of the T'ang monarch 
Hiien-tsung Jf ]£ ^ that in 748 A.D. the official title of "Master 
of Heaven" was conferred posthumously on him. In the time of 
the Northern Wei 4b i$L the Taoist priest K'eu-k'ien-chi ^g §f| £ 
had been called Master of Heaven but it was then an empty 
formula : it was only under the T'ang that official recognition 
was awarded to the title. 

The Confucian scholar who has added the commentary to 
the official history, sighes over the history of Taoism. From 
the founder Lao-tsze's time down to the Earlier Han, there had 
developed only some thirty-seven schools; there was almost no 
propaganda : there was no spirit of hugger-mugger, no talismans, 


no magic. All these distortions came in with Chang-Tao-ling 
under the later Han and henceforth propaganda for the sect 
made enormous strides among the common people. One Taoist 
priest of Mt Sung ^ a disciple of Chang-lu (the grandson of 
Chang-Tao-ling) claimed to have been favoured with apparitions 
of Lao-tsze and announced that it was the sage's will that the 
title of "Heaven Master'' 3^ 6i|J should be conferred on Chang- 
Tao-ling. Taoism spread like wild-fire through China and 
could claim equal rank with Confucianism and Buddhism. Its 
wors J ; crime would be the entitling its teachers: Masters of the 
Way, "Tao-shi" $| -± and Master of Heaven "T'ien-shi" ^ gjjj. 

What audacity! A wretched charlatan dares usurp the title 

of "Master of Heaven" ! Were not Chang-Tao-ling and K'eu- 
h'ien-chi mere men, born of a father and a mother? .. Is not 
their very intelligence a gift of Heaven? How dare they arrogate 
to themselves the title of "Master of Heaven". (1) 

I IT. Chang-tao-Hng according ti the Histories 
of the Three Kingdoms. 

Whoever wishes to get an accurate idea of the practices 
of Chang and his immediate descendants should read with care 
what the different histories of the Three Kingdoms record on 
the subject. 

The revolt known in history as that of the "Yellow 
Turbans" broke out in the reign of the Han Emperor Ling-ii ^ 
H $fc about 184 A. D. The chief promoter was Chang-hioh $f 
ft}, a follower of Lao-tsze who had been studying Taoist magic. 

(1) For further details see: 

T'ung-kien-lcang muh !i g£ ffl g j£ |g Bk, 24 p. 82. Bk. 3, p. 13, 73. 
Wieger, Textes Historiques V. 2 p. 916-923. 
Wei-shu H # Bk. 114 p. 18 Bk. 35 p. 1. 
Sung -shu Jfc ^ Bk. 433 p. 1. 
Ming-shi BJ & Bk. 50 p. 17. 

Heu-han-shu Liuyen-shwan & gf ^ |?i] ^ £| (Commentary) |£ Bk » 
75, p. 3. 


At a moment when the plague was causing- wide-spread havoc, 
Chang-kioh claimed to have found an infallible remedy. Using 
a stick with nine knots in it, he drew a kind of charm on a piece 
of paper which was to be given to the victims of the scourge 
These had then to prostrate themselves, examine all their sins 
scrupulously and drink off the ashes of the charm in a draught 
of water. If they got well, their recovery was due to their faith; 
if not, their incredulity was responsible. Thanks to this procee- 
ding, he won an enormous number of adherents. Thereupon he 
proclaimed a universal peace, and got posted up on doors the two 
characters: Kiah-tsze ^ ^ , viz. the cyclic numbers of the year 
when peace was to be realized, 184 A.D. He styled his doctrine: 
the "Doctrine of Universal Peace". His recruits to the number 
of 500.000 followed his banner wearing yellow turbans ^ \\]. 

Chang-kioh divided his forces into three groups. He 
himself led the first corps and called himself the Duke-Marshal 
of Heaven. His second brother, Chang-pao i/jf H? commanded 
the second with the title of Duke-Marshal of Earth. Lastly, 
his youngest brother, Chang-leang, was in charge of the third 
group and was called: Duke Marshal of Men. All three suffered 
defeat at the hands of General Hwang-fu-sung and perished. 

At this period, another insurgent leader appeared, Chang- 
Siu $k %> also a disciple of Lao-Tsze •%£ z $-. He also set about 
popularising his recipe for curing the pest. His system was as 
follows : the patient must find a place suitable for perfect 
recollection and there ponder upon the sins of his life-time : 
then his name must be written on three documents asserting his 
willingness to amend. That these three declarations might be 
brought to the cognizance of the Three Principles^ li? San-kwan) 
of Heaven Earth and Water, one was to be deposited on a 
mountain, the second buried in earth and the third sunk in 
water. There were officers to share the control of his bands of 
adepts. All those who submitted to the treatment had to pay a 
fee of five bushels of rice: hence Chang-sin got the name of Five 

Fig. 154 

-^ Jfc> J& Mj 


Tchang-t'ien-che et ses insignes. Image dite des "Cinq venimeux*'. 
Chang T'ien-shi and his insignia. Picture known as that of ''the five 
venomous animals" . 


Bushels Master. His bands were only an off-shoot of the general 
Yellow Turban Revolt. Chang-luh $| §| grandson of Chang -Tao- 
ling ijj| Iff |H followed in the foot-step of Chang-siu |jj| j£. 

The historian of the Three Kingdoms tells us of Chang 
Tao-ling the well-known details of his stay in Szchwan where he 
composed Taoist books to stir up the people and of the rice fee 
earning the "Rice-chief" nick-name (Mi-tseh Jfc j$). 

About Chang-luh, his grandson he gives us more informa- 
tion. He was originally from Fung Jg P'ei ffff (to the North 
of Nan-siu-chow in Ngan-hwei), the cradle of the Han -/H. He 
was also called Kung-k'i £ flU- 

The prefect of Yih-chow ^ ^'H (now Ch'eng-tu-fu jfc ffl Jft 
in Sz-chwan) one Liu yen §pj 3=§ entrusted Chang-luh with a 
military command and sent him to attack the prefect of Ban-cluing 
•jH cfi (in Shen-si). But Chang, in order to reap all the glory 
for himself had his colleague Chang-siu murdered and then 
amalgamated their armies. Liu-chang §[|J Jjpr, son of Liu-yen, 
wiped out Chang's family but Chang installed himself as governor 
at Han-chung. Here he so effectively won over the populace 
to his superstitions that they styled him the Teacher Prince Sifi 
^". His troops were styled: Demon-soldiers Kwei-tsuh $1 ^. 

The adepts of his teaching were called, Libationers ^ jg 
and were graded in hierarchies under "Grand Libationers." The 
chief precept was blind faith without an attempt at dissimulation, 
exactly like the Yellow Turbans, in this case too the sick were 
to make a full confession of their faults as the source of their 

The Libationers founded free inns where travellers got rice 
and meat free, but where avenging spirits smote with sickness 
those who abused the hospitality. Those who thirce violated the 
order's laws were put to death. Everywhere the Libationers 
replaced the ordinary officials of the Government and ruled the 
common people. 




For thirty years Chang-luh and his Libationers ruled the 
districts to the west of Pa-hsien £ ^ \ n Chung -k'ing-fu SI! iff 
(in Sz-chwan) as well as the prefecture of Han-chung-fu ^| cf 3 
M (in Shen-si). Just then, the central government had to 
tolerate what it was too weak to prevent : so he was given the 
title of Prefect of Han-ning -^ S§£ (now Hing-ning-hsien f| $j? §| 
attached to Pin-chow f£ ]]] in Hu-nan $j ^). Ts'ao-ts'ao igf ^ 
assailed him in 216 A.D. under the reign of the Han Emperor 
Hien-ti ^| j^ ^ and Chang-luh had to retire to Sz-chwan. 
Shortly afterwards Ts'ao himself got into trouble and had to 
confer on Chang the title of "Marshal Pacifier of the South." 
Chang-luli died in 216. 

The historian has not nothing to say about Chang-heng 
»jfi$Ef the son of Chang-Tao-ling beyond the fact that he succeeded 
to his father and followed the same profession. 

This is all that the most authentic source, the History of 
the three Kingdoms, has to say about Chang Tao-ling, Chang-heng 
and Chang-luh. All sources agree in calling them "rice-thieves", 
charlatans and rebels. (1) 

Origin of the title "T'ien-shi" ^ fijjj 
( Heav en-Teacher ). 

The hereditary title of T'ien-shi Ji frjj (Heaven-Master) 
given to Chang Tao-ling and his lineal descendants was first 
conferred by Shi-tsu, T'ai-wu-U -Jtt f|, i: tf£ # (Topatao) of the 
Yuen-wei j£ fj| dynasty (424-452 A.D.) on the Taoist priest, 
K'eu-k'ien-chi ^g f§ ;£. This worthy was then living on the 
southern slope of the sacred mountain, Sung-shan ^ []}, situated 
in the north of Teng-fung-hsien $£ ^ $£ in Ho-nan. He was 
styled Fu-chen ff ifit an d his home district was Ch'ang-p'ing-ehow 

(1) Cf. San Icxvoh-clie : Wei-slm, Chang-lu-chwan. ~. 12 Jc- 
S. Bk. 5 p. 13. 

San-lcwoh-tien-lioh = ^ .it. §. 

Heu-han-shu, Liu-yen chwan $ M 9 1fr\ M M- 


H zp. j>\] attached to Peking (Peh-ping), Chih-li. In his youth, 
he had become the intimate of the Immortal Ch'eng-kung-hing $ 
y)] H and after many journeys together they had finished by 
settling down on the southern slope of Sung-shan. Like Chang 
Tao-ling, he delved into magic and claimed to have been favoured 
with special apparitions of Lao-tsze j£ ^ . By him he had been 
selected as the head of Taoism and was to bear the title of 
"T'ien-sM" ^ frjj "Heaven-Master". A grandson of Lao-tsze, Li- 
pu-wen ^ ff| ■% bestowed upon him a book of magic charms 
and it was this collection that K'eu-k'ien-chi went to present to 
the Emperor T'ai-wu. When K'eu appeared at court no one 
believed his statements except the chief of Imperial Kitchens, 
Ts'ui-hao ^ fg-. Ts'ui-hao had been summoned to the court of 
T'ai-tsung, Ming-yuen-ti ^ ^ BJ x. %r (409-424 A. D.) as chief 
magician and the next monarch T l ai-wu placed great reliance on 
him. Later on, however T'ai-wu had him put to death with the 
vilest of indignities. 

It was ts'ui-hao who now presented the magic-book on 
behalf of K'eu-k'ien-chi. The emperor was greatly pleased and 
deputed Ts'ui to offer sacrifice of silks and victims on Mt. Sting. 
K'eu-k'ien-chi got himself and his hocus-pocus accepted and 
received the title of -'Heaven-teacher" Ji gjjj. A temple was 
built by imperial orders at Ta-t'ung-hsien ^ |g] §£ (then called 
P'in-ch'eng ^ ^j) in Shan-si and given to K'eu to be a centre of 

Sz-me-kung in his History notes the advent of this new 
alchemy (1) 

The historians cited above assure us that the title of 
"THen-shi" granted by T'ai-wu to K'eu-k'ien-chi was only an 
empty honour and was only officially promulgated and recognized 

(1) Cf. T'ung-Men-Mng-muh (cheng-pien' M f£ %M H Bk. 22 p. 53: Bk. 
26, p. 11: Bk, 24 p 82. Bk. 3 p 72 Bk. 24, p, 80. 
Ming-yih-t'ung-che HJj — $fe ^ Bk. 1 p. 5 2. 
SM-wuh-yuen-hwui Jf? $fy M. # Bk - 35 P- !• 


in 7-16 A. D. in the reign of the T'ang Emperor Hiien Tsung Qf 

In 1016 A.D., the Sung Emperor Chen-tsung ^ if| ^ 
conferred on the Taoist priest Chang Cheng-sui ^ j£ Pil the title 
of "Teacher of Perfect Seclusion." This was a direct descend- 
ant of Chang-Tao-ling and lived ou Lung -hush an which had 
become the seat of Chang's descendants since Chang-sheng jJJtjfl, 
the great-grandson of Chang-Tao-ling had settled there. 

Chang-chcng-sui was magician and sooth-sayer and got a 
hold on the people by his craft. The Emperor was deeply 
wedded to all such practices and sent for Cheng-sui. The 
minister of state Wang-k'in-joh 3E $fc 3a got for him a house 
temple and landed property to be held for ever: his descendants 
should also have titles of honour. 

The Annals of the Ming dynasty add the following details. 
Under the Sung dynasty, Chang-Tao-ling and his heirs received 
the title of True Princes jf| JJ (Emperor Shen -tsung % f$ ^ 
1068-30C6 A.D., confirmed officially by Hwui-tsung % % 2* 
(1101-1126 A. D.) The Ming princes gave them the style of 
True Men, or Heroes, "Chen-jen" jp| \. According to the 
writer Shao-peh-icen ffi f fa ^nn. (Sung dynasty) the first three 
Chang called themselves Shi-kiiin (Master-Princes, Princes of 
Master.) gjjj %. 

Down to the end of the Empire, the court deputed a 
mandarin to offer sacrifice in the temple, Hien-ling-koung, II fg ^ 
on the fifteenth of the first month the birth day of Chang-Tao-ling 
although this sacrifice did not appear on the official list. 

The founder of the Ming dynasty BJ ^C fl (1368-1396 A- 
D.) deprived Chan g-cheng-ch'ang ^ J£ ^ Chang-Tao-ling 1 s lineal 
descendant, of the title "Heaven-Teacher", replacing it by 
Chen-jen jfL A (Hero). The Emperor, in the hearing of his minis- 
ters, remarked: "Heaven is the noblest of beings. How could 


it have a master?" (1) Yet the name of Heaven-teacher has 
always been in use since that, even though the ''Chen-jen" 
(Hero) title had been usual in the Yuen ?£ dynasty (before the 

Thus it appears that Chang-Tao-ling is the real founder 
of modern Taoism with its preoccupations with magic. It was 
he who opened up the source of revenue in the pills of immortality 
and the talismans to cure all sorts of illnesses. He claimed to 
have his magic recipes straight from heaven, and his descendants 
exploited that source of revenue. Considerable sums of money 
were even till recent times spent on procuring as remedy or 
prophylactic a talisman which should have the seal of the Grand 
Master of Taoism. (2) 

So successful was this line of business that the Buddhist 
monks followed the lead and turned out talismans written in red 
ink. Pagan households now generally treasure one or more 
charms of this kind to protect them from evil spirits or epidemics. 

In fine, Chang-Tao-ling' $ epitaph might, in the vigorous 
common-sense of Chinese, be written with the characters — 
"Stealer of. Rice" % ffc. 

The picture here reproduced depicts Chang-Tao-ling riding 
on a tiger and holding magic sword and magic potion (elixir) 
The tiger, be it noted, holds in its paw the magic seal (1) of 
which another of our plates reproduces the latest variety (2) 
Below are the five poisonous beasts: the lizard, the serpent, the 
spider, the toad and the centiped : hence the picture is called, "The 
picture of the five poisonous things 3l # i$. (wu-tuh-siang). 
It is often hung up on the fifth day of the fifth month (old 

(1) Ming-shi BJ £ Bk. 5 p. 17. 
Hing-yih-t'ungChi HJ^ — • Wi 1& (as quoted above) 
Kang-Men-yih -che-luh: chu ffl gg % £fl # |£ Bk. 34 p. 14 

(2) See fig. 134 bis: The Seal of the last Grand Master of Taoism. 
Copied in the year 1928-9. 


calendar) to ward off the calamities and illnesses that may come 
with the heats of summer. (3) 

(1) The inscription on the seal is ft£ jjjg |g '$,. 

''Blessings descend! Away with the evils!" 
(Sie, the last character, expresses abnormal incorrect influences). 

(2) See Fig. 154 bis 

(3) See Chinese Superstitions Vol. V. Fig. 203. 

(Text, p. 616-7.) 




Wang-Chang, a disciple of Chang Tao-ling is worshipped 
under the title, Wang Ta-chen-sien 3E ^c ^ fllj- A temple of 
his at Teh-hing-hsien ^ Jj|. J§£ in Kiang-si, 40 li from the town of 
Wu-yuen-hsien (of Hwui-chow) has become a famous pilgrimage. 
The peasants come in multitudes to worship him and beg 
protection against epidemics and public calamities but especially 
to be free from the white ants whose ravages destroy the wooden 
frame-work of houses. He is also invoked against the Mung- 
ch'ung |||a kind of evil that causes mildew on rice. 

As soon as people notice the presence of white ants in a 
house, they write on a strip of paper the characters : Wang ta 
chen sien tsai Is'z, ch'ung i tsieh sz. 3: ^ jl| fllj ^ jtt H lHI £P 
^£ The great Genius Wang is here, perish forthwith all ants! 
These details were furnished by the Rev. P. de Bodman, S. J. 
missioner at Wu-yuan in Ngan-hwui 4z ^ The peach legend 
(p. 530) is still current among the people. 



HU-CHEi\-Klt5lV (T B) C 

tt M ^ 

The family name of this personage was Hit §£ ; he was 
usually called Sun j|§ and his full name was King-chi $£ £. 
The authorities are not agreed as to his birth-place. Some say 
that he was from the prefecture of Ju-ning-fu 'fa ^ jff in Ho 
nan pf ~$. The author of Kwang-yil-ki Jf J& |£ on the contrary 
holds that he was born at Nan-ch'ang-fu ~$j || ffi in Kiang-si 

His father's name was Hii-su f£ ;j|" and his grandfather's 
Hit-Pan f£ ffc. His mother had a dream of a phoenix with golden 
plumage : the bird was carrying in its beak a precious pearl and 
dropped it into her bosom and so she was with child. In the 
second year of Ch'ih-wu ^f J| (239 A.D.) — that is, in the 
reign of Sun-k'uen |£ ^ (Wu-ta-ti -^ ^ *$?, the founder of the 
Wu dynasty -^). the child was born. During his youth, he 
studied the magic of the Taoists: in early manhood, he proved 
himself dutiful to his parents and temperate in life. 

At the beginning of the regnal period T'ai-h'ang -fa M 
(280 A.D.) of Tsin Emperor Wu-ti |f ]j£ ^ , he was named 
sub-prefect of Tsing-yang $£ $|. This ancient town was situated 
to the North of the actual sub-prefecture of Chi-Mang-hsien ^ 
£r_ %, under King-ehow-fu $J )>\] Jft in Hu-pch $JJ ft. During 
years of drought, his touch turned shards of tiles into gold in 
order that the distressed might pay their arrears of tax. 
Thousands were indebted to his talismans and charms for 
recovery from epidemics. 

He resigned office during the dynastic troubles and went 
to the south of Yang-tsze-kiang where he entered into intimate 

Fig. 155 

Hiu-sien en promenade par les lacs. 

Hsu the Immortal, travelling on the lakes. 


relations with a famous magician Kwoh-p'oh |f> g|. Together 
they betook themselves to the minister Wang-tun j£ |$f who had 
revolted against the Western Tsin. Kwoh-poh merely succeeded 
in irritating Wang who got him beheaded. 

Hil-sun flung a cup up on the roof -beam of the room and 
made it dance about in the air: while Wang-tun's attention was 
rivetted on the strange capers of the cup, Hil-sun slipped away. 
Having got as far as Lu-kiang-k'eu Jj| -/x P in Ngan-hwei, he 
went on board a boat which two dragons first drew off to 
the sea and then lifted up to the clouds. In a jiffy they had 
taken it off to Kiu-kiang-fu Ji yX ffl in Kiang-si f£ W over the 
Lu-shan Jg |Jj (Mountain's) (1), 25 li south of the town of 
■Kiu-kiang \ fXL- The boatman out of curiosity peeped out to 
steal a look at the wonderful motor power and the dragons 
objecting to this profane scrutiny dumped the boat on a 
mountain peak and fled. 

Now, in those parts, there was dragon or transcendent (2) 
alligator which had transformed itself into a young man calling 
himself Shen-lang '|'ft j|fl. This young man had married Kia-yuh 
|5[ 3£, daughter of the high court judge of T'an-chow $g }\\ (i-e- 
Chang -sha-fu -^ f\? ffi, the capital of Hunan). The young 
couple occupied quarters at the back of the tribunal. Every year 
in spring and summer, Shen-lang swept over the rivers and lakes 
(3). One day Hii-chen-kiiin met him at Yil-chang Jg^ Jp; (Nan 
ch'an-fu ~jfe ^ Jf^f, capital of Kiangsi and recognized that he 
was a dragon and actually the cause of the floods that devastated 
Kiangsi. So he planned to get rid of him. 

(1) The Kuling mountains, the favourite retreat of Europeans from 
the summer heats. 

(2) The character f§, known already from its use for the Pox-demons 
% 11 ft- indicates that an animal has ascended in the scale of being, has 
becoming an intelligent being— a kind of spirit or demon. 

(3) Dragon "Article'' In Chinese folk-lore, the dragon is a ruler 
over the waters, sails amid the clouds, at will causes rains, storms, 
droughts and floods (Yol. V Chapter X. Art. I.V p. 677 sq.) 



Shen-lang was not slow to understand that his behaviour 
was known to Hil-chen-kiun and so he changed into a yellow ox 
and made off. Hil adopted the shape of a black ox and started 
in pursuit. The yellow beast tried to hide in a well but the 
black one jumped in after it and the yellow beast jumped out 
and away to Chang sha -^ $? where he resumed his human shape 
and residence in his father-in-law's "yamen" Hii-sun on following 
him to the town, straightway repairs to the official court and 
gives notice to Shen-lang that he must come forth and show 
himself, and imperiously upbraids him : "Dragon, how dare you 
hide yourself here under a borrowed shape. Shen-lang came 
forth and resuming his proper shape as a transcendental "alligator 
began to circle about the hall but Hii-sun ordered the warrior, 
spirits to kill him. Then he commanded Shen's two sons to 
come out from their dwelling and by spitting some water from 
his mouth on them (1) made little dragons of them. Kia-yuh 
was ordered to quit her appartments immediately and at a given 
instant the whole tribunal disappeared into the earth leaving 
merely a lake to mark the site. 

Hii-chen-kiiln after his victory over the Dragon assembled 
his whole family, numbering forty-two persons, on Si-shan "jrtf (Jj 
outside the walls of Nan-ch'ang-fu ^ || ffi — and all, taking 
with them their dogs and their domestic fowls, went up to 
heaven in broad daylight. Hil was 133 years of age. It was 
the first of the eighth moon, in the second year of the Ning- 
k'ang 5|E Jf| period of Eastern Tsin Emperor Hiao-wu-ti ^ 5£ i?r 
(374 A.D.). 

His own compatriots and his clan came and built a 
temple in Hit's honour. They collected the hundred and twenty 
pieces of poetry he had composed, them wrote out on slips of 

(1) An action easily recognizable by all who have watched Chinese 
laundrymen at work. The mouth is used as a spraying machine. (See 
also the account of Chang Kwo-lao's steed. Articie VII), 


bamboo which they put into a tube to provide lots to be drawn 
by worshippers for their guidance. 

The Sung Emperor Hwui-tsung 5^ ^ ^ in 1111 A. D. 
(\& ^P regnal period) canonized Hil-sun under the style of 
"Equitable, admirable and beneficent prince" and built a pagoda 
for it by imperial edict. 


The traditions relative to the Dragon's well and cave are 
reported as follows by two works: (1) Suh-wen-hsien-t'ung-kao 
WL £ Wi '® M> ( 2 ) Min-yih-Pung-chi BJ - $ ±. 

In the town of Nan-ch'ang-fu p£f || $f facing the temple 
of Longevity, also known as the Palace of the Iron Pillar, there 
is a bottomless well with blackish waters whose levels correspond 
to those of the Kiang £r. In the middle of the well there is 
sunk an iron pillar said to have been cast by Hil-sun to stop the 
Dragon's mischief. So the foot of this column are attached 
the eight chains tying up a vein in the earth and blocking the 
Dragon's den. (1) 

His adventurous deed has been celebrated by the poet 
Wu-ts'iien-tsieh -^ 2[S fp (Yuen Dynasty XIII-XIV centuries). 

But there is mention of a second hole and a second pillar ; 
one was east, the other west of Fung-ch'eng-hsien jg jfy J$f, a 
subprefecture of Nan-ch'ang-fu. In these pits there was an inex- 
haustible supply of water and it was Hii-chen who with charms 
dislodged the Dragon hiding in them so effectively that he 
returned no more. 

(1) Chinese geomancy, Fung-shui j$, i\< (lit. Wind and water) pays 

particular attention to these veins or arteries in the earth from with 

earthly influences make themselves felt and into which the Dragon sinks 
as into his den. 


Another version of the Dragon story is given by the work: 
Mung-lai-pu (Fung-hia-pih-t'an-ych-lung-pien) j& H "^ (J| Bg ^ 

t£ m it •) p- 45 - 

At the period when Hii-sun was still only a novice in the 
high science of the way M (Taoism), he had a friend who was 
of a strange and fantastic temper and whom he for all that kept 
duly admonished. One day this man went to an island in the Kiang 
fX. to bathe and found there an egg as big as a pumpkin: he 
pierced the shell and sucked the contents. Soon he felt himself as 
it were encased; he developed a sort of carapace and scales, and 
in three days was a real dragon. 

So he retired into the Kiang f£ and only came forth now 
and then as a fair young man to seduce women. He made it his 
aim to turn the P'o-yang lake |}[j |$|§ of Kiang-si £r_ ]fff into an 
island sea. Hence Hii-sun in the general interest got hold of him 
and bound him to a column of stone at the bottom of the water. 
The place of the captivity was Nan-ch'ang-fu before the Longevity 
temple, as we havo seen above. 

Later on, he succeeded in marrying a rich-man's daughter 
but this man was made aware of the truth by Hii-chan-kiiin and 
in consequence showed his son-in-law the door: the latter never 
came back. Finally he sought out two poor women living on the 
banks of the Kiang ^£ a mother-in-law and her daughter-in-law. 

They refused him admittance. Thereupon the vicious Drag- 
on cast a look back over his shoulder and pointing with his finger 
said, "Look, the water is coming," Actually the flood had risen to 
the front door. So the two women retired to the inner room and 
the Dragon followed them pointing a second time and repeating. 
"The water is coming." So all three had to mount to the upper floor 
and there the ruffian spent the night. At down he disappeared. 
Shortly the woman was known to be pregnant but when the time 
for her confinement was just at hand, Hu-chen-kittn came to the 
house-door under the guise of a mendicant Taoist priest. The 
people of the house begged to be excused for not giving anything 


because of domestic troubles: they promised to be more generous 
another day. ''Oh, yes/' said the visitor "I know you are in dis- 
tress and it is precisely in order to free you that I have come. 
About half a mile (over a li) to the south-east, you will find 
an old woman, a very clever midwife : get her to come to you". 
They took his advice and induced the old woman to come: 
she proved to be the old Matron of the Lu Hills (Jf[ |||). 

When the time of delivery came, it was amid a terrific 
storm. As soon as one of the Dragon's sons was born, Hu-ch'en- 
kiun f£ jf| JJ who was standing ready at the door, cut off its 
head. This proceeding was repeated until eight were disposed 
of. A last one appeared and after making several attempts to 
mount up to the skies, returned each time to its mother. So 
Chen-kiiln was touched by this piety and determined to do no 
more to it than dock its tail. This was done and the dragon felt 
so much pain that it fled away to hide in a deep pool in Hu-peh 
#Jj 4t- Every year it revisited the mother in the third or fourth 
moon, causing devastating storms. 

According to another legend, it dwelt first in the subpre- 
fecture of Ying-shan jg Uj $£, (under Teh-ngan-fu fjg # Jff in 
Hu-peh). The peasants taking advantage of its temporary 
absence dirtied its pool, so that it removed its lair to Sui-chow 
|ij§ j'\], bordering on Ying-shan (also under Teh-ngan-fu). The 
Sui-chow district is mountainous with many ponds, fit abode for 
a dragon. 

This latter version comes from Teh-ngan-fu, while the for- 
mer was told me by a Kiang-si man. This authority added: 
You can find pretty well the same account in the new edition 
of Wan-shu-kung-chi "jt| H ^ f£. 

The miserable Sung Emperor Hwui-isung ^ % n< canon- 
ized him and gave him a title of honour. 

According to two works, (1) the Taoist priest Wang-tsze- 

(1) T'ung-Men-lcang-muh (su pien* Ji g£ M H Bk. 9 p. 93. Sung-shu 
Sfc & Bk. 462 p. 9. 


sih 3L it it m the year 1113 A.D. claimed to have received 
a mysterious book enabling him to declare the future: this had 
come from the hand of Hii-sun who had been canonized three 
years before. The minister Ts'ai-king IjlT?! informed the monarch 
who had Wang-tsze-sih summoned to court. There he was 
hailed as "Master Searcher of Mysteries." The foolish man 
wanted to be honoured by all the other Taoist-priests and this 
brought about his ruin. Lin-ling-su % g| ^> high at court, got 
jealous, laid his snares for him and got him cast into prison 
where he died. Probably it was on hearing of the wondrous book 
that the credulous Hwui-tseng canonized Hii-sun and then after 
two years of wonder at the prophecies decided to call the Taoist 
Wang-tsze-sih to court. 


T'ai-pin-kwang-ki ic ^ It IE BK. 14 p. 3 
Chung-tseng-sheu-shen-ki it i# H JjifjJ f£ (Jfc; ^f )p.22 
Ming-yih-t'ung-chi BJ — $ jfc BK. 52, p. 19 : 

BK. 31 p. 28; BK.49 p. 8: 

BK.49 p. 13, 18. 
Yuen-kien-lei-han $}j fj£ $f gj BK, 318 p. 30. 
Kwang-yii-ki Jf ilL gfi BK.12 p. 15. 
Suh-wen-hien-t'nvg-kao Ht # j#t jf ^ BK. 241 p. 38. 

sz-ta-t'ien-wang 95 

SZ-TA-T»IE1\-WAJ\G (B.T.) 

m ± Ji 3E 


I. Their residences. 

The four heavenly kings have their palaces on Mt Sii-mi 
ZMWl\h> the 8u -Meru where the gods dwell in Indian legends, it is 
the Mountain of the Four Treasures. Its height is three million 
three hundred and sixty thousand li. Its sides are of gold (east) 
silver (west), crystal (south-east) and agate (north-east). (2) 

II. Their names. (3) 

I. (P'i-p'u-tung-ch'a) t'ien-wang : gj ^ gi Jj % ^ 3E 

II. (P'i-p'u-poh-ch'a) t'ien-wang •. |g ^ -\$ % Ji 3f 

III. (T'i-t'eu-lai-ch'a) t'ien-wang : $1 II $§ 5^ ;£; 3: 

IV. (P'i-sha-men) t'ien-wang : |jj fp f 1 ] % 3^ 

There are the names to be found in the second book of 
Sheu-shen-ki ^ f$ fj£ under the heading Ji 3E, T'ien Wang. 

The well-known story of the Journal of the Voyage in the 
West (4) ^ $| !£ furnishes two more names of Heavenly Kings : 
it -ft ^ 3E» Tseng-chang t'ien-wang (i.e. Virudhaka) and f£ ^ ^ 
^ 3E, T'o-t'ah-li t'ien wang, (i.e. Li the Tower-bearer, apparently 

(1) See Chinese Superstitions (above) Vol. VII (Eng. trans.) 394-408 
for a full account of Indian origin. 

(2) Tuh-su-M-shu-lioh ff ffi: £E $J[ # Bk. 12 p. 2. 

(3) Other versions of their names are: ®t $£ $jt Virudhaka (south), 
lit ftt Wi %. Virupaksha West); H ^ J| p| Dhritarashtra (East); 4£ £b P>j 
VaisJiramana (North). 

(4) (Fourth Hwui) ff !' [af p. 15. 


the same as Yirupakasha or VajrapdniJ. This latter is very 
popular : he may be recognised by the symbol he carries, a 
tower (1) (See fig. 156). His name is Yuen-pa 7c j|| and his 
fore-name Tsing $pj. 

These Heavenly Kings are styled Li, Ma, Chao, Wen by 
the Taoists and are represented as in Fig. 156, 157, 158, 159. 
For the Buddhist figures see Vol. VII pp. 394 sqq. and its 
account of the ^ pfij Kin-hang of Buddist temples. 

III. Worship. 

When T'ai-tsung of the T'ang dynasty }§£ -j^ 9^ (or Li-shi- 
ming ^ -}£ §g). second son of Kao-tsuJH fg f§ was still fighting 
to establish the T'ang dynasty inaugurated by his father in 620 
A.D., a spirit came down from heaven and introduced himself as 
P'i-sha-men T'ien-Wang Jj> fV f*\ Ji 5E "I wish, said he," to help 
you to reestablish peace in the kingdom." In his hand he held 
a monster with the head of a pig and a trunk like an elephant : 
the divinity procured peace wherever he appeared. So when 
Li-shi-ming succeeded to his father, by imperial edict all officials 
had to sacrifice to P'i-sha-men. 

In 1023 A.D. (^ H) the Sung emperor Jen-tsung ^ iz tN 
ordered all prefects to build temples in honour of this same 
divinity and to have the letters % ^ T'ien Wang (Heavenly 
King) inscribed on the facade of all new Buddhist temples. A 
large number of temples in honour of the King of Heaven were 
built all over the Empire. (2) 

According to the Eai-yil-ts'ung kao, (3) many Buddhist 
temples were called ^ 3£ i^ Temple of the Heavenly King. In 
the T'ien-pao ^ ^ period (742-756 A.D.) of the T'ang emperor 
Huen-tsung Jf ;£ %*, the barbarians raided Si-ngan-fu W :£ #f in 

(1) This tower is perhaps a confused reproduction of an Indian 
original thunderbolt (see Article on Na-ch'a below: also Chinese Superst. 
Vol, VI p. 97: Mayer's Handbook N° 820). 

(2) See: Sheu-shen-ki ft ftji IE, T # under the heading- ^ 3E at the 
end of Bk. II. 

(3) ^ tfc ^ i% Bk. 34 p. 21,42. 

Fig. 156 

Li porte-tour. 

Li, the tower-bearer. 

Fig. 157 

Le roi celeste. Ma. 
Ma, the heavenly king. 

sz-ta-t'ien-wang 97 

Shen-si and the Emperor ordered Puh-k'ung-san-ts'ang ^ ^ H ^ 
(1) to use his charms to drive them off. Immediately a divinity, 
clad in golden breastplate appeared : the priest announced that 
P'i-cha-men T'ien-wang's second son, by name Tuh-kien ^ $£, had 
set out to help the defenders. After a short while assurance was 
given to the Emperor that all was well, for T'ien-wang Ji 3£ had 
appeared in the North-eastern district and had swept away the 
foe. The Emperor thereupon gave orders for the image of the 
Heavenly King to be set up on all roads. 

(3) Puh-Tc'ung, a famous priest, honoured with the title of Royal 
Duke, died in 774 H. D. (9th year of Ta-lih ^ 1 in reign of T'ai-tsung 
JS ft ^ Posthumous title: sagacious, erudite, prudent monk of the Three 
Mysteries (= f). 








n S 












































4* 5 







Fig. 158 

Tchao, Le roi du ciel. 

Chao, the heavenly king. 

Fig. 159 

Wen, le roi celeste. 
Wen, the heavenly king 

t'ai-yih 99 



The Ran Emperor Wu-ii ^| ^ ^ was supplied by the 
Taoist priest with all sorts of prescriptions for restored youth 
and immortality. He had first to perform sacrifice to Tsao-kiiin 
ff H" the Divinity of the Household-hearth and then to quaff a 
potion compounded with vermilion — but without success. 

Then there came one Miao-ki fp t %, a Taoist adept who 
persuaded the monarch that his failure was due to not sacrificing 
to T'ai-yih -fa £, the Great One, the Supreme One, first of all 
heavenly spirits, him from whom the Five Sovereigns Wu-ti 3l 
^ take their start. "In ancient days the Emperor used to sacri- 
fice to the Great One, both in spring and in autumn, in the south- 
eastern suburb : in seven days, one after the other, he was wont 
to offer seven victims." The emperor ordered these rites to be 
renewed in the suburbs to the south-east of the capital of Chang- 
ngan -^ #, that is Si-ngan-fu Hf ^ fff ([££ U). The precepts of 
Miao-ki were to be followed minutely. (1) 

The scholars enraged at seeing the emperor falling a victim 
to the quackery of the Taoists, determined to counter their wiles. 
One of the court-grandees came upon the Emperor one day as 
he was on the point of quaffing an elixir : regardless of the sacred 
person, he snatched the cup and drank the potion. The Emperor 
was ordering his death. "Nay, Sire,,' said the culprit, "since I 
have drunk the elixir, you cannot put me to death. If however 
I am still subject to mortality, Your Majesty owes me a reward 

(1) SM-M-tseh-i £. f£ JJjl] |g Bk. 2 8 p. 24 
Wen-hien-t'ung-Tcao % J$ Jg 7$. Bk. J 

:#. Bk. 80 p. 4 


for proving that the potion is worthless and that those humbugs 
have been cheating your Majesty." The Emperor forewent the 
punishment but was not disillusioned. 

Now this Supreme One is an invention of some Taoist: 
the divinity represents an abstract conception that has taken on 
different connotations at different times or in different places or 

(1) T*A1 Y1H: the Sovereign of the Five Heavenly Emperors 

T'ai Yih-fc Zu ls > tne noblest of the Heavenly Spirits, the 
prime Ruler on whom depend the Five Emperors, the Green 
Emperor of the East, the Red of the South, the White of the 
West, the Black of the North and the Yellow of the Middle. 
T'ai-Yih's throne rises above those of the Five. That is T'ai-yih 
becomes the equivalent of HKhang-ti J^ ^ the Supreme Being. 

Under the Han Emperor Yuen-ti iH 7C ^, 48-32 B.C., 
K'wang-hen g $£f (1) petitioned for the abolition of the cult of 
T'ai-yih. From about this time on, T'ai-yih begins to sink into 
oblivion. From the Dynasty of the Western Han Hf )H to the 
Siti |§§ inclusive, nothing more at least in official circles is heard 
of these sacrifices. Only under the T'dng Emperor Ming-hwang 
^ 0£j iH. (Hiien Tsung) 713, A.D. do we come again upon traces 
of the cult. (2) 

(2) T'AI-YIH. Cosmic Matter before Its dispersion. 

The Rites are based on the Great Unit. Heaven and 
Earth date from its subdivision ; its revolutions constitute the 
two principles of all beings Yin and Yang (^ (^ (Passive and 

(1) Fore-name Che-l"ivei ff =£, a native of Yih-hsien ft£ f£ in Shan- 
tung (lj |g; he sent a memorial to the Emperor for the suppression of all 
sacrifices not officially canonical. 

Cf. Ts'ien-han-shu fjff jH # Bk. 81 p. 1. 

(2) Cf. Shi-wu-yucn-hwui ^ % M # Bk. 12 p. 1. .... 

Wu-li-thing-hao Jlif Bk. 3 6 p. 9. 

Fig. 460 

T'ai-yih Chen-jen. 

t'ai-yih 101 

Active : a sort of "matter" and "from") ; its changes produce 
the seasons ; spirits and demons j^ are born of the subordination 
of its parts. It is entitled the T'ai-yih:, "Immensely Great" : 
before dispersion, it was uniquely one Yih — : so it is T'ai-yih 
"Great Unity", the principle of heaven, earth and the seasons. (1) 

(3) T'AI-YIH. Three and One. 

Another view would regard T'ai-yih as the noble Heavenly 
Spirit, at once one in himself but three if one considers his union 
with Heaven and with Earth. Heaven, Earth and T'ai-yih make 
a Triad in which the unique spirit is the "Great Unity". 

The Taoits addressed a memorial on this supposition to 
the Han emperor Wu-ti fH j£ ^. They represented that formerly 
the Son of Heaven was wont to sacrifice an ox every three years 
to the spirit One and three : heaven, Earth and Great One : they 
gained their point (2). 

(4) T'AI-YIH. An unknown spirit. 

The Ming-shi B^j j£ Bk. 49, p. 18. allows him to be some 
otherwise unknown spirit who is popularly so named. 

(5) T'AI-YIH. Spirit of the Pole Star. 

Others would allow him to be the spirit of the Poie Star, 
the pivotal constellation. Hence he has under him the Five Hea- 
venly Sovereigns and he has his abode on the Pole Star. (3) 

(tt) T«A1-Y1II. Spirit of the First of the Nine Constellations. 

The Taoist having invented certain stellar divinities, 
allotted them palaces in the constellations. 

The Nine Constellations of which there is question form 
a set of points of the compass — eight being directions in the 

(1) Cf. Li-M-shu-shu-li-yun ft IE i± Bfi ! H M Bk - 22 - P- 24 - 

(2) Cf. Shi-hi-tseh-i £ IE M M Bk .2 8, p 2 4. 

(1) Cf. Yuen-kien-lai-han M ^ ^ pg Bk. 4 p. 5 Wen hien-t'ung-iao %. 
M ^ Bk. 6 p. 80 SH-U-cheh-i & 1£ $l| li Bk, 27 p. 1. 


heavenly sphere and the ninth being the centre. The colours as 
usual are a fixed convention. The list is as follows. (1) 

1. W. White. (Star) THen-p'ung ^ |g dwelling of T'ai-yih ± £ 

2. North. Black „ T'icn-nei ^ ft „ Sheh-i'i % f| 

3. S. E. Blue ,, T'ien-heng ^ Ht „ „ Hicn-yuen $f $g 

4. East. Green „ T'ien-fu ^ $$ „ „ Chao-yao ^ ^ 

5. Centre. Yellow „ T'ien-kin H ^ „ „ T'ien-fu ^ %$ 

6. N. W. White „ T'ien-Sin ^ ,fr » « Ts'ing-lung ^ff| 

7. South, Red „ T'ien-chu Ji Q „ „ Hien-ch'e }& ^jj 

8. N. E. White „ T'ien-jen ^ ft „ „ T'ai-Yin ± H 

9. S. W. Violet „ T'ien-ying ^ ^ „ ., T'ien-Yih ^ £ 

Tha Tang emperor Ming-hwang (Hilen-tsung) ■)§* 0^ j|l 
(S v^) 713-754 A.D. inspired by the Taoist priests offered sacri- 
fice to these nine of which "ic £, is the Chief. His son and 
successor Su-tsung Jf H '^ 756-763 A.D. had a separate mound 
erected in honour of the Great One that sacrifices might be 
separately offered to him. 

The Sung Emperors Jen-tsung (1023-1064 % fz ^) and 
Shen-tsung (1068-1086 % f^ 9^) set up respectively the Great 
One of the West and the One of the Centre : this latter was 
entitled Wu-fuh Yl fg, the Five Blessings. Shen-tsung made the 
total of 10 -J& — spirits. 

I. The Ten T'AI-YIH Spirits. 

1. The -fc — of the Five Blessings. 

2. The -Jfc — of the Prince. 

3. The ± — of the Officials. 

4. The -fa — of the People. 

5. The -fa — of the Nine Natural Agents. 

6. The -]& — of the Great Journeys. 

7. The -fa — of the Petty Journeys. 

8. The -ic — ' of the Four Spirits. 

(1) Lang-ye-tai-tsui-pien MMft^M Bk. 1 p. 19. 
Tss-shi-tsing-htva ^ £. % Ijl Bk. 3 p. 9. 

T'AI-YIH 103 

9. The -fc — of the one Heaven. 
10. The ic — of the one Earth. (1) 

The Sung Emperor Hwui-tsung ^ ^ ^ 1101-1126 A.D. 
set up a T'ai-yih of the North and during the reign devotions 
grew in respect of the new spirit. 

In 1252 A.D. (i.e. second-last year of Shun Yiu ^ jjfc) the 
Emperor Li-tsung $£ g| ^ ordered a temple to be erected towards 
the West for the Great One, and on the third of the tenth month, 
he himself went in person to worship. His minister, Meu-tsz- 
tsai $L ^p Z% (2) protested with a very dignified and outspoken 
memorial against this Taoist invention. He called his attention 
to the fact that calamities of all sorts began to pour in upon 
the empire from the very year 112 B.C. when the Han emperor 
Wu-Ti -fj| jj£ ^ went himself to offer sacrifice to T'ai-yih -Jfc £, at 
"Kan-ts'iien" "JET' j§l '■> that year brought an eclipse of the sun, drought, 
locusts, floods, bursting of dams — and every year added a new 
scourge. There was moreover the revolt of the South ]fj" ^ Nan- 
yueh, with Hun inroads and brigandage in the East and all the 
painful instances of witch craft which had caused such disturbance 
in the royal palace "So, he concluded," this cult is bringing us no 
good-luck. The Emperor ^ ^ Wu-ti in his old age, but all too 
late, recognized that he had been cheated. "Your Majesty not 
only is imitating him but even surpassing him : that causes 
sorrow to your most loyal ministers and still more is storing 
up bitter regrets for the close of your life." (3) 

For all that the cult was continued under the Yuen ji^ 
Emperors. When the Ming 0)^ came a President of the Rites 
denounced it as heterodox. So a compromise was effected (to 
save face for the older emperors) and henceforth this T'ai-yih 
was to be honoured on the same altar as the Heavenly Powers 

(1) Cf. Tuh-shul-i-shu-lioh fff # £E 3$ -g. Bk.43 p. 4. 

(2) Born at Tsing-yen-hsicn $■ $f $£ in Sz-ch'ican. 

(3j Cf. Suh-wen-hien-t'itng-kao ?f % Jgf jM jg Bk. 108 p. 1 


controlling wind, clouds, thunder and rain but not on a separate 
special altar of his own. (1) 

(S) TAI-YlH-CHEN-JEiX ± — m. A 

The Taoists, always practical, converted these rather 
abstract conceptions into a heroic personage to be worshipped in 
their temples under the title of T'ai-ijih-chen-jen (The Hero T.y.). 
His adventures as related in the Fung-shen-yen-i ^ f$ $if H (2) 
have made him famous. The reader is referred to the notice of 
Na-ch'a-san-t'ai-isz in Article XV below. Practically this is the 
only T'ai-yih known to the worshippers in Chinese temples of 
our days. 

(1) Cf. Ming-shi ^ A Bk. 49 p. 18. 

(2) Cf. 'The Right Way of Installing Divinities" 



+ . r t ? W 

The Twelve Ting Kiah spirits of Taoism. (T) 

The Taoist have twelve spirits corresponding to the twelve 
Yuen-kiah x ^ of Buddhism (1) with a corresponding- cult. 
However instead of combining the "Ten Heavenly Stems ^ -p 
T'ien-kan with the "twelve Earthly Branches" (2) only two of 
the Heavenly stems were used ; the first stem T Ting is first 
used in combination the first six Earthly Branches ^ ^ Ti-che, 
and then the ^ Kiah is used in combination with the remaining 
Branches. To each combination a fuller personal name is assigned. 

1. Six Ting Spirits ("] ) 

Cyclic (year) names Personal name. 

Ting-mao-shen "J* JJ|] j$ Se-ma-kung if] ^ J/pj] 

Ting-ch'eu-shen "J" 3t #$ Chao-tsze-jen |g ^f- ££ 

Ting-hai-shen T* ^ jffi Chang-wen-t'iing'ffc vjr j$ 

Ting-yiu-shen "T* jSj f$ Tsang-w en-hung ffi ^C ^ 

Ting-wei-shen ~f ^ ^ Shih-shuh-i'ung ;g" ^ jg 

Ting-sze-shen T EL # Ts'ui-shih-k'ing Jg ft $J] 

The Six liiali Spirits (Ep) 

Kiah-tsze-shen ^ -f 1$ Wang-wen-k'ing ^£ ^; J|p 

Kinh-suh-shen ^3 ^ jjjiji Chan-tze-kiang Jg ^F ?X 

Kiah-shen-shen ^3 ^ iji$ Hu-wen-chang M "& "H" 

Kiah wu-shen ^ ^p ^ W ei-shang-k'ing % J^ ^Jl 

(1) For a full account of these "Genii ruling the Cyclic Year" and 
the actual working of the Cycle and its symbols see Chinese Superstitions, 
Engl. tr. Vol VII. p. 3 88 

(2) See Superstitions VII p. 388 sq. : Encyclopaedia Sinica p. 137. 



Kiah-ch' en-shen ^ ^ |$ Mung-fei-k'ing j& flp. 

Kiah-yin-shen ^ ^ ^ Ming-wen-chang B£j £ ^ 

Certain Taoist writers assert that the first six are feminine 
and the latter masculine. (1) Usually they all are represented as 
masculine. These play an important part in talismans where 
they are represented by the following curve : 

1 n nil ri 

(1) Tuh-suh-M-shu-lioh |f -£ ffi $$ § Bk. 43 p. 4. 

Suh-wen-liien-t'ung-hao iff % |K M :# Bk. 241 p. 3. 

TEU-MU 107 

TEU-MU (B.T.) 

^ # 

Teu-mu, the "Dipper,' Mother, is greatly honoured in 
Buddhist temples but for all that she is a stellar divinity of the 
Taoists as one can see from what follows. 

Teu-mu J|- -Q: was the mother of the nine human sove- 
reigns known as the Jen-hwang X Jl who are said to have reigned 
in the fabulous era after the Rulers of the Heaven and those of 
the Earth. (1) 

She was called Mo-li-che 0. ^1j ]£ (2) and was born in 
the Western Realm, T'ien-chuh-kwoh % &£ [gj, i.e. India. 

Having attained a deep insight into heavenly mysteries, 
her presence radiated light, she roamed over the seas, travelled 
from sun to moon, and as well showed an overflowing charity 
for the help of poor human beings. 

In one of the Northern regions of the Universe there 
lived one Ch'en-tsu-ts'ung JH %£ $£, King of Cheu-yil ffl fjjp. Mo- 
li-che heard report of his renowned virtues, married him and had 
nine sons. These were : — 

1. T'ien-ying Ji ^ 2. T'ien-jen Ji Q 3. T'ien-chu % ££ 
4. T'ien-sin Ji *fr 5. T'ien-k'in Ji ^ 6. T'ien-fv, Ji $$ 
7. T'ien-ch'ung Jitft 8. T'ien-jui Ji ffi 9. T'ien-p'ung 3£*5g 

She is also called T'ien-mu Ji $%, Tao-mu ^ •££. When 
all these children had been well instructed by their mother in 
all the transcendental sciences, she said to them : 'Tn these 

(1) See Mayers: Chinese Reader's Manual p. 384. 

(2) Besides her family name is given as Wan $£, her personal name 
as T'ai-yang ^ R§. 


northern regions, the dwellers are all too few, better dwell in the 
South." So they went off to the south of Mt. Che Siu jjf {§ |Jj ; 
the inhabitants seeing their chariots and garments, took them to 
be genii and chose the eldest as king. T'ien-ying was raised to 
the throne and is sometimes called Kiu-t'eu-shi j\, jp j£ — "the 
eldest of the nine" but more generally Jen-hwang \ Jfl "The 
Human Emperor". 

Then Yuen-shi-t'ien-tsun yt ia H M- came on earth and 
raised Mo-li-che, her consort and her nine sons to the joys of the 
Heavens He installed her in the palace Teu-ch'u J\- $|, the Polar 
Hinge (on which all the stars revolve) and conferred on her 
the title of "Queen of the Doctrine of the Primal Heaven". 
Hence is derived the title of "Dipper" Mother J\- -JsJ:, as she 
dwells near the Dipper Star. Her nine sons live with her and 
rule over nine constellations. 

Her consort Cli'en-tsi-ts'uny living with her is entitled 
Teu-fu-i'ien-tsun J\- 4£ ^ j§;, Dipper Father Deva worthy. And 
the Queen has the corresponding title of Dipper Mother revered 
of Heaven. (1) 

Fig. 161 gives an idea of the usual representation of 
Indian type in Buddhist temples. She wears a crown of Budd- 
has : she possesses three eyes and eighteen arms: in these she 
holds mystic symbols; a flag, a bow, an arrow, fiery wheels, a 
monkey's head, a pearl — and she has the lotus flower as her 
throne. Our picture is copied from a statue at Ju-kao -fa jfl in 
a nunnery temple outside the South Gate. In the main hall of 
the Mt. T'ai Temple ^ [Jj ^ a similar statue forms a pendant 
to one of Chun-Pi ifl $| (Marichi) these two are on lateral altars 
supporting P'i-lu-fuh eft B {$• (2) 

(1) Shen-siev-fung-licn ^ $\ 51 $g Bk. 1. Art. 2 p. 1. 2. Art. 3 Art. 4 
Bk. 15 Art. 5 p. 1. 

(2) See, Chinese Superstitions, Engl. Ed. Vol. VI p. 119. 

Fig. 161 


TEU-MU 109 

Teu-mu is derived from the Marichi (1) of Brahmin my- 
thology : the Taoist have made a stellar divinity of her and 
provided her with a consort and a palace amid the stars. 

(2) See, Chinese Superstitions, Engl. Ed Vol. VII p. 303 — 311 
Marichi is there identified with Chung-t'i j$ $g. 



3 *f 

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^ £ £ 

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<$Hi k£I Kh 

15 S 81 




















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NA-CH'A 111 

N/\-CH*A-SAi\-T«Al-TSZE (T.B.) 

W 0t H ± =¥- 

1. Biith. 

Li-tsing ^ j^ : , a general under Cheu-wang j$ ^£, was 
local commander in Ch'en-t'ang-kwan $fl |f If at the time when 
the murderous was ushering out the 8 hang dynasty ^ broke out. 
His wife Yin-shi Jj£ j£ gave birth to three sons, Kin-ch'a ^ |££ 
the eldest, Muh-ch'a ;fc P"£ the second and 59(5 fF£, Na-cJva known 
as "the third prince" JEi ^k -J 1 - He is a hero of romance. 

The author of the Fung-shen-yen-yi $$ ^ -/H" H has piled 
up the marvellous in describing the deeds of this incredible 
character. His mother was with child for three years and six 
months without being able to bring the child to birth. One 
night she saw in dream-vision a Taoist priest entering her room. 
Full of indignation at this, she cried, "How dare you enter my 
room so rudely?" The Taoist answered by bidding her receive 
the "child of the unicorn," and, without giving her time to say 
anything, he thrust an object into her bosom. She awoke in a 
fit of fear and aroused Li-tsing, telling him what she had just 
seen in her dream. On the instant, she was seized by birth- 
pangs. Li-tsing withdrew to a hall, puzzled by the whole affair ; 
everything seemed to be of evil presage. Shortly two servants 
r an up distraught crying, "Your wife has just given birth to a 
wicked monster". 

Li-tsing took his sword and entered his wife's room. It 
was flooded with a red glare and permeated with a strange 
smell. There on the floor was a mass of flesh whirling about 
like a wheel. Li struck at it with his sword, cleft it open and 
there issued a child whose body radiated red beams of light. 
The child's face was verv white : around its wrist was a bracelet 


of gold and about its middle a band of red silk from which 
streamed dazzling rays of golden light. This bracelet was the 
"circle of earth and heaven," this silken band an embroidery of 
earth and sky in fine, two precious objects from the grotto of 
Kin-kwang-tsung £ ^ -p] presented by its inhabitant the Hero 
T'ai-yih -fa Zj M A (see preceding article on -fr — i. e. ^ £,) 
when he had visited the mother in her sleep. The child was a 
reincarnation of Ling-chu-tsze g $fc ^f- The Intelligent Pearl. 

On the morrow, T'ai-yih came and asked Li-tsiny's permis- 
sion to see the child. "His name," said he, "shall be Na-ch'a 
and he shall be my disciple." 

2. Youth and Misdeeds. 

Na-ch'a at seven years of age was six feet high. One day 
he asked permission from his mother to go for a walk outside 
the town. She agreed on condition that an officer should 
accompany him, and impressed on him that he must not remain 
long outside the ramparts lest his father should be displeased. 
So Na-ch'a went out with an officer as escort. It was the fifth 
month and so hot that after walking a li he was bathed in sweat. 
On ahead, there was a grove of trees, and he was assured by his 
escort whom he had sent on to investigate, that he should find it 
very cool there under the willows. Na clva was delighted, 
Pushed on to the trees got well into the shade and undoing 
his dress, proceeded to enjoy the cool breeze. Amid the willows, 
a stream gently ruffled by the wind rolled clear, green waters 
inviting him to bathe: the waters played about the sides of a 
mass of rocks. The youngster bounding along the bank, announ- 
ced to his guardian that he would bathe from this rock. 
"Make haste then," said the officer," if your father is back before 
you, he will be very displeased. "Na ch'a took off his clothes 
and them made use of his red-silk band, some seven feet long 
as a bath-towell, that is, as the Chinese are so fond of doing he 
dipped it into the stream. This band was a mysterious object: 
no sooner had it touched the surface of the river that the water 

Fie. 1G2 

Na-touo san-t'ai-tse. 
Na-to San-t'ai-tze. 

na-ch'a 113 

began to boil, and earth and sky shook. This river, the River 
with the Nine Bends, Kiu Wan Ho \ $| jpj was in touch with 
the Eastern Seas: its waters now grew red and the palace of 
Lung-wang f| £ swayed on its supports and began to crumble. 
The Dragon King (1) Ngao-kivang |fc ^ seated in his Crystal 
palace Shui-tsing-kung 7k. a, 'g" was surprised to see the walls 
crack and sway. He knew it was not the time for an earthquake 
so he sent a police-officer Li-ken ^ J| to visit the borders of the 
sea in order to find out the cause of the disturbance. 

Li-ken came to the mouth of the River of the Nine Bends 
and saw the waters all red : yet there was only a child there 
dipping a strip of red silk in the water to wash himself. Li 
burst through the waters, demanding what this might be that 
was causing such disturbance. Na-ch'a looked around and caught 
sight down below in the water of a creature with green face 
and red hair who bared his teeth and was brandishing a great 
axe as if to strike him. "What brute is it, said Na-ch'a "that 
speaks thus?" Then seeing this police-officer of Lung-wang jf| 
3E making for him, he slipped aside and taking off his golden 
bracelet threw it so that it landed on Li-king's head and crushing 
his brain stretched him dead on the rock Na-ch'a got hold of his 
bracelet again and laughing said, "His blood has stained my 
precious circle of earth and sky." He sat again on a rock and 
washed it clean in the water but this caused a second disastrous 
quake that demolished the Dragon-king's palace. 

"How is it that my messenger is not back?" said Ngao 
kwang ■. and at that moment, his officials brought news of the 
killing of the courier by a child. So Ngao-kwang's third son, 
Ngao-ping -|JC ptj at the head of a squad of "marines" and holding 
his trident issues forth: this flotilla of swift submarines 
raises mountainous waves that caused a sort of "bore" several 
feet high in the Nine Bends River. Na-ch'a stood up in amaze- 
ment and on the instant caught sight of a warrior riding on a sea 

(1) Chinese Superstitions, Vol. VII pp. 409 sqq. 



monster. "Who killed my envoy ?" cried the apparition. "T'was 
I", said Na-ch'a. "And who are you?" "I am Na-ck'a, third son of 
Li-tsing of Ch'en-t'ang-hwen Pjf( |[lj §§. I came here to cool 
myself. He came to insult me and so I killed him!" "Ruffian, 
do you know that Li-ken was a messenger of the King of 
Heaven? How did you dare to kill him and even still worse 
hoast of it?" And with that Ngao-p'ing tried to strike his 
trident into Na-ch'a. Na-ch'a dodged the stroke and demanded 
who his assailant was. ''Ngao-p'ing, third son of the Dragon 
King," "Such bragging! If you dare touch me, 1 will flay 
alive you and your mud-eels." "You would make me choke 
with rage." shouted Ngao-ping and he struck with his trident. 
Na-ch'a opened up his silk strip upon the air and thousands of 
fire-balls burst out from it. The Dragon-King's son finds himself 
hemmed in on all sides and falls on his back. Na-cJva plants one 
foot on his victim's head and strikes him with the golden 
bracelet whereupon the real dragon shape is disclosed. "I am 
going, said Na-ch'a," to take out your sinews, and make a belt 
of dragon-sinews for my father's breastplate." This he did 
and brought home his spoils to the great terror of the officers 
in the fortress. 

The killed man's escort reported to the Dragon King 
what had befallen his son and the King himself thereupon 
assumed the form of a scholar in order to seek out Li-tsing and 
demand of him reason for the killing of his son. Li-tsing, 
ignorant of the whole happening, at first denied his son's guilt: 
then he summoned Na-ch'a. 

Na-ch'a was in the garden busy at plaiting the belt of 
dragon-sinews for his father. To his father's amazement he 
now offered it to him. "What misfortunes," cried the father, 
"have you brought upon us. Come and explain yourself." There 
is no need to be afraid : his son's sinews are here complete; I 
shall give them back to him, if he wants them, "was Na-ch'a's 
cynical reply. Coming face to face with the Dragon-King, he 

NA-CH'A 115 

greeted him, offered a few bare words of apology and offered to 
give him back his son's sinews. The father, moved at the sight 
of these tokens of the crime, turned to Li-tsing; "You have 
begotten such a son and yet dare to deny his guilt: do you not 
hear his cynical confession. To-morrow Yuh-hwang, the Jade 
Monarch 5 4fl shall hear of this from me". On the instant 
he left. 

Li-tsing, terrified by the enormity of these crimes, began 
to sob loud. His wife having heard the sound and learned the 
cause, came to find her husband. "What a harmful being you 
brought into the world," said Li-tsing to her in anger, "he has 
already killed two spirits, one of them being the Dragon King's 
son : to-morrow Yuk-ti 3£ ^ will be told of it and in two or 
three days that will be the end of us." 

The poor mother then with streaming eyes reproached her 
son. ''You whom I bore in my womb for three years and six 
months, you for whom I suffered so much, are you now to be 
for us all a cause of ruin and death?" Na-ch'a, overcome by the 
sorrow of both his parents, flung himself on his knees and pro- 
tested : "Allow me once for all to declare that I am not an ordi- 
nary man. I am a disciple of T'ai-yih-chen-jen ^ £, m. \. 
These magic weapons which I hold from him have brought upon 
me the mortal enmity of Ngao-hwang ;§£ ^ but he shall not 
prevail. To clay 1 am going to seek counsel of my master." It 
is the guilty one alone, not his parents, who must face the 
penalty." Thereupon he set out for Kien-yuen-shan f£ jfc nj. 

There, he sought the cave of his master, T'ai-yih -fa £, 
and told him what had befallen him. The master realising the 
serious consequences of these deeds, bade him bare his breast 
then with a brush he traced a magic talisman on the skin and 
gave him certain secret recommendations. "Now," he added, "go 
to the Gate of Heaven and wait for the arrival of Ngao-Jcwang on 
his way to lodge his charge with 3£ tf? Yuh-ti. Then come and 
consult me again that we may save your parents from molesta- 


tion on account of your escapades." Na-ch'a arrived at the Gate 
of Heaven and found it shut. Lung-wang had not yet come. 
After a short while Na-ch'a saw him coming. Being- himself 
invisible because of T'ai-yih's talisman, Na-ch'a ran up to the 
Dragon-King and struck him to such effect on the loins that 
Lung-wang fell to the ground and Na-ch'a started to trample on 
him and revile him. The king now recognized Na-ch'a and taxed 
him with so many crimes. The only answer was abuse and 
blows. Then Na-ch'a proceeded to an extreme of outrage ; he tore 
open the King's garments, lifted his breastplate and tore off some 
score of the Dragon-king's scales from his body so that blood 
flowed copiously. This made the King cry for quarter which Na- 
ch'a granted on condition that the accusation before Yuh-ti was 
foregone. Thereupon Na-ch'a demanded that the king must change 
himself into a small serpent that could be led away without fear 
of its making its escape. Lung-wang complied and had to follow 
Na-ch'a home in the guise of a small blue dragon. As soon as they 
arrived at Na-ch'a's home, the Dragon-King Ngao-kwang resumed 
his normal shape, accused Na-ch'a of having assaulted him and 
declared that on the morrow he would present himself with all 
the Dragon-Kings to lodge his accusation with Yuh-ti. Then 
he changed into a gale and vanished. 

Li-tsing was dismayed by this piling of woes on woes but 
Na-ch'a would have him be of good cheer. "1 am" said he, "the 
predestined of the gods, and my master is T'ai-yih-chen-jen. I 
have his assurance that he can protect us. All these Dragons 
Kings can do nothing." Li-tsing was perplexed by the words as 
much as by the happenings. 

Na-ch'a went out into the garden and, in search of amu- 
sement issued by the North Gate and climbed the tower overlook- 
ing the gate. There he came across a magic bow and three 
magic arrows ; they had been deposited there since the Emperor 
Hivang-ti |if $? had made use of the weapon to overcome the 
rebellions Ch'i-yiu j£? it. Na-ch'a knew nothing about their 
history but he mused with himself that he must have some pra- 

na-gh'a 117 

ctice, if, as his master warned him, he were destined to secure in 
the future the fortunes of the Chow dynasty /§] against the Shang 
j§j. So he bent the bow and shot an arrow to the south-east. 
The bolt sped whistling through the air leaving a trail of red to 
mark its passage. Just then an attendant of Shih-ki-niang-niang 
■fi $! tk && by name Pih-yun |!| g happened to be at the foot 
of Mt Skeleton K'u-lou § £ ft§ |1| in front of the Goddess's grotto. 
The arrow pierced his throat and he fell dead. Immediately 
the Goddess came forth and examining the arrow which bore 
the inscsiption, "the Arrow which troubleth the Sky,'' she knew 
that it came from Ch'en-t'ang-kwan (^ j$ ||. 

Li-tsing of course was the guilty one. So the Goddess 
mounted her blue phoenix, sped over Ch'en-t'ang-kwan and took 
off Li-tsing to her cave. There she set him kneeling before her 
and upbraided him with his criminal ingratitude. She was pre- 
paring him for immortality and had helped him to worldly 
honours since he had left his lonely mountain ; and now he had 
killed her attendant. Li-tsing swore he was innocent but to no 
avail for the arrow was eloquent testimony. Li-tsing begged 
the Goddess to allow him to go at liberty and find the culprit. 
<Tf I cannot find him, you shall take my life." 

Again Na-ch'a cheerfully owned to being the guilty person 
and followed his father to the Goddess's grotto. But as he 
arrived at the entrance, the second attendant Ts'ai-yun-t'ung-rh 
3£ H M H upbraided him. Na-ch'a struck him roughly. This 
enraged Shih-ki-niang-niang and she rushed at Na-ch'a armed 
with a sword : quickly she had stripped him of his magic bracelet 
and magic silk strip. Na-ch'a fled to his master and the Goddess 
pursued him. She demanded delivery of the culprit to put him 
to death. A struggle began and but T'ai-yih-chen-jen succeeded 
in launching against her a globe of nine fiery dragons ; these 
encircled the Goddess and burned her : she changed into stone. 

Now "said T'ai-yih to Na-ch'a back quich to your parents: 
the four Dragon-Kings have lodged their accusation with Yuh-ii 


and they are about to seize your parents." Na-ch'a began to 
weep but T'ai-yih whispered him some secret advice and assured 
him it would save his parents. 

3. Death. 

On his return, Na-ch'a found the four Dragon-Kings bent 
on taking off his parents. "It is I," said he, "who have killed your 
son. Why molest my parents? I will pay the penalty. I shall 
give back to my parents what 1 got from them. I will rip up my 
belly and tear out my entrails, cut off my limbs and scrape my 
bones. Will you agree? If not, let us all appear before Yuen-shi- 
Vien-wang 7c if? 3^ 5E and abide the result." Lung-wang accepted 
the offer. So Na-ch'a on the spot carried out his part : he took 
a sword, cut off one of his arms and then fell senseless after 
performing the hara-kiri. His soul borne by the winds reached 
T'ai-yih's cave even while the mother was still engaged in the 
burial rites. "This is not your abode," said his Master, "return 
to Ch'en-t'ang-kwan and beg your mother to build you a temple 
forty li away on Mt. Ts'ui-p'ing ^. ^ Mj . After three years of 
worship, your can be reincarnated." 

About the third watch of the night, Na-ch'a's mother was 
in a deep sleep when her son appeared and admonished her to 
build his temple that his soul might find an abode. The mother 
in tears awoke and told Li-tsing. He scolded her for her blind 
attachment to such a monstrous son who had caused them such 
woe. But the apparitions continued for five or six nights and 
on the last occasion, Na-ch'a spoke very plainly. "Do not forget 
that I am savage by nature. If you do not give ear, evils will 
come upon you." So the mother got the temple built secretly: in 
it was a statue of Na-ch'a and soon it attracted crowds of pilgrims 
by wondrous happenings. 

One day, Li-tsing with his troops passed that way and 
wondered at the masses of pilgrims of all ages and conditions on 
the reads leading to the temple. "Where are these people going?" 
"These six months the spirit in the mountain-temple has been 



doing wonders and people are streaming here from all sides to 
pray to him." ''What is the spirit's name?" "Na-ch'a." Li-tsing, 
on hearing this, went to have the evidence of his own eyes and 
found that it was really Na-ch'a-Mng-kung ^p^^f^- He entered 
and saw that the statue really represented his own Na-ch'a. Beside 
it were the usual two attendants. Li-tsing in violent anger set to 
it whipping and reviling the figure. Not satisfied with being for 
us a cause of evil, you would deceive these people after you 
death." He whipped the statue till it fell to pieces: with kicks, 
overthrew the attendants, warned the people not to worship such 
a wicked man who had disgraced his own family. Then he 
ordered the temple to be burned. 

On arriving home, Li-tsing taxed his wife with building 
that temple and thereby exposing him, her husband, to be degra- 
ded for introducing a heterodox cult to a false divinity. "If ever 
you want to build a temple again for Na-ch'a, 1 will sever all 
relations with you. 1 have burned that temple : let that be the 
end of the matter." 

Na-ch'a had been away from the temple at the moment of 
its destruction and he returned to find merely a heap of smoking 
ruins. "Who has destroyed my temple?" he asked of his atten- 
dant spirits who waited him in tears. Li-tsing, commander of 
Ch'en-t'ang-kwan." "Ah! He has outstepped his rights. I had 
given him back what I had got from him. Why does he come 
to demolish my gilded statue? I have no more ties to bind me to 

During that half-year of worship, the soul of Na-ch'a had 
begun to win back a sensitive life. Now he must go again to 
consult T'ai-yih how to carry on. T'ai-jjih agreed that he had 
been cruelly maltreated and declared that a way must be found 
to get Na-ch'a ready in order to help Kiang-lsze-ya =£ ^ %■ who 
was shortly to leave his mountain and establish a new dynasty. 

4. Rebirth of Na-ch'a. 

T'ai-yih-chen-jen procured two water-lily stems and three 


lotus leaves and with them formed on the ground a sort of 
skeleton-man. In this he slipped Na-ch'a's soul by means of 
magic charms and there arose a new Na-ch'a, full of life with 
fresh complexion and ruddy lips and fully sixteen feet in height. 
"Presently in my peach garden, I shall arm you," said T'ai-yih 
"and there he gave him a fiery lance, finely sharp, and two wheels 
(1) of fire and wind to serve as vehicles (like roller-skates) 
under his feet and an ingot of gold in a panther-skin wallet. So 
Na-ch'a after having thanked his benefactor, sped off on his 
wheels to Ch'cn-t'ang-kwan. 

When Li-tsing got warning of the coming vengeance, he 
mounted his horse, took his weapons and went to meet him. After 
mutual abuse, Li-tsing was worsted in a combat of arms and took 
to flight Na-ch'a pursued relentlessly and just as he was about to 
overtake Li-tsing, the latter's second son Muh-ch'a ^fcl'T^ intervened 
to protect him. In answer to Muh-ch'a' s rebukes, Na-ch'a insisted 
that he had given back his filial relationship and will now have 
his grievance out with Li-tsing. In a fight Na-ch'a disables his 
brother with a blow of the golden ingot on the loins. Then he 
resumes the pursuit of Li until the latter loses hope of escape 
and is about to kill himself. On a sudden, the voice of a Taoist 
adopt calls him to take refuge in his cave where he will be safe. 
Na-ch'a follows his victim but there is now no trace of Li to be 
seen in the grotto, Na-ch'a would force this old fellow to yield 
up his refugee but he has not reckoned with his new opponent. 
It was W en-shu-t'ien-tsun ~$t ffi Ji 1$. and T'ai-yih has planned 
this to teach Na-ch'a a lesson. This Taoist by use of magic 
implements got hold of Na-ch'a. In the twinkling of an eye, 
he had passed a golden collar about his neck and two chains 
about his legs and had him fettered to a golden pillar. Then 
one of Wen-shus attendants gave the turbulent boy a good 

(1) See Mayers Chinese Reader's Manual, N° 520 Originally Buddha's 
wheels ?£ ft. 

na-ch'a 121 

Just at this humiliating- moment, T'ai-yih as if by chance 
came to visit Wen-shu and making Na ch'a stand before Wen-shu 
and Li-tsing, he admonished him to live on good terms with his 
father while however taking the father to task for having burnt 
the pagoda of Ts'ui-p'ing Shan. Thereupon T'ai-yih bade Li-tsing 
return home and after a moment, ordered Na-ch'a off to his own 

But Na-ch'a, full of resentment and thirsting for revenge, 
rushed off in pursuit of Li-tsing, confident of getting his own 
back. But of a sudden, a Taoist worthy appears, takes Li under 
his protection and forbids Na-ch'a to do him any harm. Na-ch'a 
was now in a paroxysm of rage, unrestrained as a wild cat, and 
flung himself at the Taoist, wishing to spear him but this latter 
produced a white lotus-flower from his mouth aud the spear was 
checked. Na-ch'a still was untamed; so the Taoist produced 
from his sleeve some mysterious object that mounted up in the 
air and then fell at Na-ch'a's feet wrapping him in a shroud of 
flame that scorched him cruelly. At last he yielded and begged 
for mercy. The Taoist made him promise to live on good terms 
with Li-tsing, to address him as father and now to prostrate 
himself at his feet in order to be reconciled with him. 

It was now Li-tsing's turn. The Taoist turning to him 
promised him a retreat from office that he might become an 
Immortal and be enabled to serve the Chow Jj§) who were shortly 
to take over the reins of governement. "Both of you," he went 
on, "will be high officers in the new dynasty and both of you will 
attain immortality." But to render Na-ch'a impotent for the 
future against Li-tsing, he bade this latter kneel and then 
bestowed on him the magic object that had burned at Na-ch'a's 
feet and brought him to reason: it was a tower of gold (1) 
— and this has become the symbol of Li-tsing and the reason 

(1) Originally a representation of a thunder-bolt: the vajra of 
Indian mythology. Li could be Vajrapani. 



for his usual title, "The Tower-Bearer" T'oh-Vah iA-tHen-wdng 
(1) ft « * * 3£. 

The fabulous tales, the stories of the gods at war, the 
romances about the fights at the establishment of Chow dynasty 
are full of the marvellous deeds and fantastic combats in which 
Li-tsing and Na-ch'a figure as heroes. They always share in 
the campaigns of the gods. (2) 

The Sheu-shen-ki ^|^|E gives a shorter but more obscure 
legend which seems to have a similar core. Na—ch'a was the 
squire of Yuh-ti 3£ ^ : he was sixty feet in height : he had three 
heads with nine eyes in all: in his eight arms he carried magic 
weapons : his mouth belched blue clouds and his voice made the 
pillars of the sky rock and the bases of earth tremble (3) His 
task was to reduce to subjection the Demon-Kings who harried 
the earth. Yuh-ti made him generalissimo of the twenty-six 
heavenly officers, grand-marshal of the heavens, and guardian 
of the gate of heaven. (4) 

(1) See Chinese Superstitions, above, Article XI fig. 156. 

The Taoist who bestowed the tower was Jan-teng $k %t and Taoist 
legends would make of him the teacher of Buddha (see Chinese Supersti- 
tions, Vol. VI p. 89-90 Dipamkara or the Light-bearer). 

So Wen-shu above and P'ou-hien ^f 5£ (master of one of Litsing's 
sons) are the Marijusri and the Samantabhadra Buddhas (see Chinese Su- 
perstitions Vol, VI p. 126-130) 

Cf. Fung-shen-yen-yi ft ^ JS #§ Bk. 2 Hwui 12 p. 4: Hwui 14 p. 12. 

(2) Shen-sien-t'ung-Hen j$> On M ffli- 
Fung-shen-yen-yi ft j$ }g Jg Bk. 2 Hwui 12, 13, 14. 

Cf. illustration in Chinese Superstitions Vol XI fig. 262 

(3) Funy-shen-yen-yi §J jjjiji {(§ i§ Bk. 6 Hwui 76. He owed this new 
shape to his master T'ai-yih. 

(4) Sheu-shen-li $£ jjft 1H ( hia Mien T #) P-61. 




if »&• - m 

Marshals "Sniffer" and "Blower". 

Here we have to deal with one of the marvellous legends 
that grew up about the terrible struggles ushering in the 
Chow Dynasty /gj. 

Heng "the Sniffer" was Marshal ($f) Cheng-lun ^ jfo, Ha 
"the Blower" was Marshal ($f ) Ch'en-ki |^^f. Cheng-lun was the 
Quartermaster-General for the Commissariat of the Armies of 
the last Shang j$j Emperor, the infamous Chow ffi. He had as 
master a famous magician Tu-ngoh $£ /[£ (j|| X, the Hero) 
hailing from the K'wun-Lun Mts j=* -^j- |i|. From him he had 
learned the marvellous knack of browing forth from his nostrils, 
with the resonance of a bell, two columns of light which sucked 
up men, body and soul. Thanks to this marvellous power, he 
was able to win victory after victory over the Chow f$ fighters. 
One day however he was worsted, fettered and carried off to hi s 
camp by the general Teng-kiu-kung gft % fe. He was pardoned 
and enlisted on the Chow side as Quartermaster-General of 
Commissariat and General of five army-corps. 

On the Chow side now, he found himself opposed to 
Ch'en-ki the Blower (a sort of anticipation of poisongas in 
warfare: "flammenwerfer" versus gas) who was also commissa- 
riat commandant. The "Blower's" special qualification was 
that he had learned the magic trick of storing up in his chest 
yellow gas which he emitted through his mouth and so destroyed 
those who faced him. Thus he cut lanes through the battalions 
of the Chow. But when "Sniffer" faced "Blower", it was stale- 
mate until Na-ch'a IfflFk, on the Chow side, wounded the "Sniffer" 



in the shoulder and then the general Hwang -fei-hu ;pr ^ ^ lanced 
him through the middle. 

Ckeng-lun the Sniffer in his turn was killed in battle 
with the Skang j*j. The Marshal Kin-ta-sheng ^ ^ J\. an 
Ox-demon, was his adversary and he had the gift of producing 
in his inners the Niu-hwang ^ ^ the Ox-bezoar stone. (1) Face 
to face with the "Sniffer", he threw him out of action by spitting 
in his face with the noise of thunder a bezoar-stone big as a 
rice-bowl. The "Sniffer's nostrils were crushed in and he was 
thrown to the ground and then hewn in two. 

After the establishment of the Chow Kiang-tsze-ya H ^p 
5f (see Article LIII) canonized these two worthies and assigned 
them the guardianship of temple doors. So at the entrance to 
Buddhist temples you may find the Sniffer with nostrils expanded 
drum-wise and the Blower with eyes bulging out of their sockets 
with his effort. (2) 

(1) See Vol.XI, Art XXXVII p. 1048 Niu-hwang. Ox-bezoar is supposed 
by the Chinese to be produced in the stomachs of certain kinds of cattle 
when they have eaten on the mountains a plant called Ling-cM-ts'ao H £ 
3j£. Bezoar is a costly article in the Chinese pharmacopeia. 

(2) Cf. Fung-slien-yen-yi ff jjjij] fig fg large ed. Bk. 1 p. 30-1; 

Bk 13 p. 9; Bk 15 p. 40; Bk 19 p. 19-20; Bk. 15 p. 31, 32,42,43; Bk 
20 p. 55. (Popular edition divided into Hwui or chapters) 57, 61, 74, 92, 
99 (gj. 

Fig. 163 

Heng-ha — le Souffleur et le Renifleur. 

Heng-hah — The blowing and sniffing Taoist Monk. 



* * 6 # 

At the gate of Taoist temples, these two divinities may be 
found as guardians like the Heng and Hoh of the preceding 
article. The following notes trace their origin and how they 
were canonized as stellar divinities. 

I. The Blue Dragon, flf gg 

This spirit of the Blue Dragon star was originally one 
Teng-kiu-kung (see preceding article) ffi % fe, one of the chief 
generals of the last Yin Emperor J$ (or Shang j$j) who figures 
in the dynastic struggle inaugurating the Chow /§). His son was 
Teng-siu gf$ ^ ; and his daughter Shan-yuh jjf{ 3£ figures in the 
romance Fung-shen-yen-yi 0$ jf$ $pf §|. 

Teng-kiu-kung's army was encamped at San-shan-kwan 
Jr. ill li when he received an order to march to the battle-field 
of Si-k'i |f |I$. Opposed there to Na-ch'a (see Article XV) and 
Hwang-fei-hu ipr f[^ J%, he had his left arm fractured by Na-ch'a 
with his magic bracelet. Fortunately he had a famous magician. 
T'u hing-sun i ^t 3& as a subordinate and this one quickly 
healed wound and fracture. 

Shan-yuh then took the field to avenge her father : she 
had a magic weapon, a stone of five fires, which she threw with 
good aim at Yang-tsien /§| ff£ full in the face : but he was not 
wounded and his celestial dog leaped upon Shan-yuh and biting 
her neck put her to flight, T'u hing-sun cured his wounds 
too. (1) 

After a banquet Teng-kiu-kung promises his daughter in 
marriage to T'u hing-sun if he wins the day at Si-k'i. Kiang-tsze- 

(1) Fung-shen-yen-yi %i jjjiji fg g|. Hwui 53 p. 6: 54 p. 9. 



ya, the Chow aspirant is uneasy at the repeated success of this 
daring officer, so well up in magic. Finding out that his master 
was Kit liu-sun, he begged this latter to call his pupil over to 
the "right" side. Ku induced his pupil to come to Kiang's camp 
and demanded of him why he thus fought against the new 
dynasty. T'u confessed that it was to obtain the hand of Kiu- 
kung's daughter. So they set about satisfying him and laid an 
elaborate plot to steal the girl away from her father. "Go be- 
tweens" were sent to Teng-kiu-kung and then a trap was laid. 
Officers disguised as plain soldiers were sent to present a list of 
wedding presents: one of those opened a box containing weapons 
and exploded a bomb. It was an arranged signal. Teng-kiu-kung 
was assailed, beaten and forced to flee leaving Shan-yuh to the 

After her marriage in the Chow camp, Shen-yuh returned 
to spend a few days with her father and she succeeded in persua. 
ding him to transfer his allegiance to the "rising sun". (1) Teng 
now fought vigorously against the troops of his old master 
Chow-wang |f 3£ and killed with his own hand in the different 
battles at Ts'ing-lung-kwan (Blue Dragon Pass) ^f M U three 
famous officers Peh-hien-chung ^ f$ jj£„ Yii-ch'eng fe J$ an d 
Sun-pao |£ Hf. (2) 

In a subsequent combat, Teng was attacked by Ch'en-ki 
VM ^f, to wit 1$ The Blower (Article XVI). He was dehorsed 
by the gas-attack, taken prisoner and executed in the enemy's 
camp by order of the general K'iu-yin JjR ij|. 

Kiang-tsze-ya in his canonisations assigned him the ruling 
of the star Ts'ing-lung. (3) 

II. The White Tiger Peh-lm. Q j& 

The spirit ruling over the White Tiger star is Yin-ch'eng- 
siu Wi )k $t> one of the colleagues of Teng-kiu-kung (above). 

(1) Fung-shen-ycnyi, Hwui 56, p. 14 - 17. 

(2) .. .. ,. „ , Hwui 66, p. 11. 

(3) Fung shen-yen-yi Hivui 73 p. 32, 33: 99. 

Fig. 464 


Esprit de l'etoile du Dragon bleu— Tcheng-kieoi*-kong (Pagode de Yu-hoang). 
The God of the Blue Dragon star— Cheng Kiu-kung (In the Yuh-hivayig 


Fig, 465 

Esprit de l'etoile du Tigre blanc. Yng-tch'eng-sieou (Pagode de Hoang). 
The God of the White Tiger star. Ting Ch'eng-siu (In the Hwang 


His father Yin-p'o-pai J$!$£|tfc occupied one of the highest posts 
at the court of Chow- wang j$ 3£ and was sent by him to nego- 
ciate terms of peace with Kiang tsze-ya. The marquis Kiang 
wen-hwan || •£ %fe seized him and put him to death. So Ch'eng-siu 
his son attacked Kiang wen-hwan to avenge his father's death 
but was defeated in battle and fell pierced by a lance. His 
enemy sent his head as a trophy to Kiang tsz-ya. 

As a sort of delayed indemnity, he was canonized as the 
spirit of the White Tiger star. (2) 

(2) Fung-shen-yen-yi Hxvui 9 5 p. 25: 99. 




i p i z m w 

The Divinity of Kwan-k'eu (1) and his son Rh-lang. The 
following article divides itself naturally into three headings : 
historical facts, legend, cult. 

1. Such facts as seem to rest on historic basis. 

The Divinity of Kwan-k'eu is one Li-ping ^ #Jc and the 
Rh-lang divinity is his son. 

In the third century before Christ the famous Ts'in 
Ijl Emperor Chao-Wang B$ ^ (255 B.C.) named Li-ping 
prefect of Ch'eng iu /$, %$ in Sz-ch'wan. Li got an opening cut 
in the mountain Li-tui ]H jfe, one li south-east of the town 
Kwan-hsien, to give an outlet to the waters of the river Moh ffi 
yY, thus preventing inundations and draining the marshes. 

Then he dug two canals across the town Ch'eng-tu: these 
were navigable and also helped general irrigation purposes. In 
addition to these services he seems to have abolished the 
barbarism of human sacrifice to the river god ; hence his own 

(1) Mt. Kwan-Tc'eu is 26 li to the north-east of Kwan-hsien }H $£ in 
th9 sub-prefecture of Cheng-tu $ $f, in Ssch'ivan )]\. Wen-wung, % ^ a 
native of Lii-kiang JjJ £C in the sub-prefecture of Lii-chow-fu in Ngan-hwui 
5£ flfr was appointed prefect in Ss-ch'toan towards the closing years of the 
Han Emperor King-ti (g| H ^f?) 15G - 140 B. C. and made a new bed for 
the Tsien-lciang ftjj ft by piercing a mountain. Hence the name }|| p. 
Irrigation Mouth. 

Cf. Mingyih-t'ung-shi ty — jjft M Bk. 6 7 p. 8 Ts'in Han Shu mHik^ 
Bk. 89 p. 2. 

Fig. 166 


kwan-k'eu-shen and rh-lang-shen 129 


Pei-wen-yun-fu-tui-tsz jfifc $C M ffi M ^ Bk. 10 p. 45 
Kia-k'ing. Sz-ch'wan-t'ung-chi-yii-ti % J| )\\ %, 7&$L ]fc 

Bk 10 p. 32 
Ming-yih-t'ung-chi ^ — Jgfc •£ Bk 67 p. 23 
Shi-ki-tseh-yi & IE $J II Bk 29 p. 2 
Ts'ien-han-shu i${ f|| # Bk. 29 p. 1 

II. The Embroidrey of Legend. 

We hear first of a combat in which Li-ping rids the 
countryside of a devastating dragon and chains it up under the 
mountain Li-tui. (1) Then there is a ceremony of human 
sacrifice to the River and an account of its abolition. The 
following version is from the Shi-ki-ho-k'ii-shu j£ fB p\ |J| ij\ (2) 

In the waters of the channels cut by Li-ping for irrigation 
and drainage there dwelt a spirit to whom two young girls were 
offered annually. A million cash were spent on the ceremonies 
of this marriage. (3) Li-ping offered his own daughter. He clad 
her sumptuously and committing her to the waters, he went to 
the temple of the River-god, mounted the steps of the altar and 
offered a cup of wine — but there was no response. In anger, 
he cried, "Sovereign of the River: you are insulting me (4) ; let 
us have our quarrel out!". With that, he drew his sword and 

(1) Tuh-sing-tsahchi |$itt$ Bk.5 p. 9. 

(2) Cf. Shi-M-tseh-yi & IE $l| jgj Bk. 2 9 p. 2. 

(3) Cf. "The Five Saints" "Chinese Superstitions Vol XII p. 1100" 
for a description of the ceremonies of Marriage with the River-god. 

It was a human sacrifice. The girls were elaborately dressed in 
bridal garments, and seated upon a bridal couch in richly decorated backs; 
then they were taken out to the deep and drowned. 

See also Vol X p. 7 80. The Marriage of the Count. 

(4) The Chinese text is not too clear. The above is the explanation 
of capable scholars and seems right. The meaning would be. "I have 
given you my daughter in marriage, have offered you the wine of rejoicing 
— and you are boorishly silent. Is not this contemptuous!" It was really 
picking a quarrel. 



disappeared. But on the river-bank two green bulls were seen 
in deadly combat — being of course Li and the River-god — and 
the bout lasted long. Suddenly Li-ping returned in person to 
his followers and said, "If you do not come to my help, I am 
dead-beat with fighting. See there to the south, that bull with 
his flanks girt in the white wrappings of my seal is myself." A 
scribe went and stabbed the bull on the north. Thus the 
River-spirit died and that was the last heard of him. (1) 

HI. Cult. 

The Hai-yii-ts'ung-kao [T£ f£ H £; records that the Divinity 
of Kwan-k'eu was worshipped in the temple of "Eminent Virtue" 
at Yung-k'ang-kiiin t|< ffc J$i that is, Kivan-hsien in Sz-ch'wan. 

This divinity was entitled King and had a mandarin 
assigned to take care of his temple. All the people of Shuh H} 
(Sz-ch'wan) held the temple in great veneration and performed 
sacrifices there. In a single year 40.000 sheep were offered there 
and a toll-duty on them brought in twenty million cash. At the 
birth-day of the God, the whole prefecture made contributions 
for the banquet and processions. Even officialdom esteemed 
the divinity. 

In 1329 A.D. in the first year of his reign, the Yuen 
Emperor Wen-tsung yt "$£ ^£ conferred on Li-ping and Rh-lang 
the following titles : 

Li-ping : The King hollowed, virtuous, dear to all, magni- 
ficent and kindly. 

Rh-lang: King magnificent whose renoun is unbounded, 
eminent in beneficence and wisdom, good and generous. 


This latter Rh-lang was in recent times more honoured 
than his father, probably because of the popularity of the Si-yiu- 
ki H ^ IE (6th Hwui p. 22) which gives this account of him : 

(1) Cf. T'aip'ingyiilan ^f f | Bk. 882 p. 4. 
Hai-yiits'ung-lcao & ffc |g ?£ Bk. 3 5 p. 20. 

kwan-k'eu-shen and rh-lang-shen 131 

His name was Chao-king j|§ ^ and he was a pupil of the 
Taoist adept Li-kioh ^ Jg. The Sui Emperor Yang-ti pg $| ft 
(605-617 A.D.) appointed him prefect of Kwan-chow /f| ft] in 
Sz-ch'wan. A dragon, under the form of a bull, living in the rivers 
Leng tff and Yuen jfifc caused annual floods. During the flood 
in the fifth month Chao-king j|g jp; tackled the question: he came 
with a flotilla of 700 boats, a thousand troops and ten thousand 
men who stood on the banks and made a deafening noise by- 
shouting and drumming. T chao-king flung himself into the 
waters with drawn sword to fight the dragon. Those watching 
saw the wathers grow red, then there came as it were an explo- 
sion that cast stones into the air and a rumble like thunder. 
The hero emerged brandishing sword in hand and with the other 
waving about the head of the monster. 

He was twenty-six years of age when he performed this 
deed but when troubles came upon the national life, he resigned 
and disappeared. However in a subsequent period of swollen 
waters, the people of Kwan-chow saw him amid a fog mounted 
on a grey horse and crossing the waters attended by a heavenly 
hound. (1) 

So a temple was erected for him at Kwan-kiang-k'eu jff /x 
p. And he is generally known as Rh-lang of Kwan-kiang-k'eu, 
grand marshal, nephew of the divinity. (2) 

There is however another version of his relationships in 
the Si-yiu-ki Bk. 1 Hwui 6 p. 22. 

According to this, Rh-lang is Yang-tsien j§j ff£. He was 
deputed by Yuh-hwang 3£|l to fight Sun-heu-tsz, 3£j$^. Con- 
fronted, the two heroes began to recite their titles and Rh-lang 
said, "Do you not know that I am the nephew of Yuh-ti 31 ft 
and that my posthumous name is Hwui-ling-hien-wang-rh-lang 
1 I 1 1 - IR. It is by order of Yuh-ti S ft himself that I 

(1) The popular name for the dog is Ying k'iien, If ^ the eagle-hound. 

(2) Sheu-shen-ki {± fc) £ j# IE P- 45. 


come to attack you". "Ah ! said Sun-heu-tsz," I remember that 
the younger sister of Yuh-ti daigned to come down to earth and 
married Yang-kiiln 1$ g" by whom she had a son. So that is 
you ! If your life is dear to you, flee at once or I must kill you ! 
From this it follows that Rh-lang as Yang-tsien is the son of 
Yang-kiiln and nephew of Yuh-hwang. 

And in fact, Rh-lang is identified in the temples with 
Yang-tsien, recognizable by his attendant dog (see fig. 166) or 
his famous mirror that discovers lurking demons like a search 
light, the Chao-yao-king J$ $£ $| (The Devil-exposer). 

A few more samples of the posthumous titles held by 
Rh-lang are : 

Rh-lang-shen-sheng-chen-kiiin ~ J$ f$ §g jgL ^ 
Ts'ing-yuen-miao-tao-chen-kiiin ffi Tfi§, j$ M }% M 
Ch'ih-ch'eng-wang fp jfa ^£ 

These laste two titles were conferred by the Sung Emperor 
Chen-tsung % \$. % (998-1023 A.D.) and the T'ang Emperor 
Ming-hwang Jg ^ ^ (Huen Tsung) (713-756 A.D). 



3; m t m * s 

I. Wang-ling-kwan. 3E SB IT 

The statue of this worthy in most Taoist temples plays 
the same role as K'ia-lan jjft 1£ does in Buddhist temples, a 

Of his history as a historical personage we have but faint 
details. At the court of Yung-loh fr |j|, the Ming Bfj reign from 
1403 to 1425 A. D., there was a Taoist adept famous for skjll, 
one Cheu-sz-teh, |g] ,g, ^ a native of Cheh-kiang province (from 
the sub-prefecture of Ts'iuen-t'ang-hsien H H $$, more accurate- 
ly of Hang-chow ^ j\\). He seems to have been a pupil of 
Chang-yii-ch'u $| ^ ;f(J, the 43rd Grand-Master of Taoist, but he 
attributed his adept practice to the tradition of Wang-yuen-shwai 
3£ 7C Bill otherwise Wan-ling-kwan, first among the twenty-six 
heavenly marshals, president of the Heavenly Ministry of Fire. 
This Wang-ling-kwan was the pupil of Sah-sheu-kien (see below) 
and he in turn was in the reign of Sung Emperor Hwui-tsung 
% % ^ (1101-1126 A. D.) a pupil of the notorious Taoist adept 
Lin Ling-su ^ ft §^. 

As for the cult of a Wang; the Emperor Yung-loh ^ ^ 
seems to have been a great promoter if not the actual inaugura- 
tor. In his reign an antique statue of Wang was found on the 
shore of the sea and the Emperor worshipped it morning and 
evening. He also had sacrifices performed in Wang's honour to 
the west of the imperial town as a thanksgiving for the hearing 
of his petitions. He had a temple built for him called "Temple 
of the Heavenly Marshal". In the reign Man Teh W ^g (1426- 
1436 A. D.). the title was changed to "Temple of the Virtue of 
Fire" and Wang received the title of "True Prince Glorious and 


Kindly". This emperor had also the characters for, "Palace of 
the Great Virtue and the Resplendent Intelligence" set on 
the facade of the temple. The emperor Hien-tsung Bf] j|jf 5j? 
1465-1488 A. D. changed the name of the temple to that of 
"Palace of the Virtue of Fire" and added two characters 
H g| Men-ling to the worthy's titles, meaning as much as 

Every three months, the robe and dress of the temple 
statue were changed. Every three years, certain parts were 
consigned to the fire and every ten years the whole the costly 
outfit was destroyed and renewed with all its pearls, jade and 
silks. Celebrations were held on Wang's birth-day, and on New 
Year's Day, the Summer Solstice and the Feast of the Appari- 
tion of Wang and Sah, officials were deputed to offer sacrifice. 

But when one Kou-kioh Jg[ J£ and his son Ku-lun )f| 
jfo pretended to be possessed by Wang and Sah, the affair 
became a source of disorder, and the government had to exile 
these two men. Then two presidents of the Tribunal of Rites, 
Hung-mo $fc |g and Wen-i ■% $£ (Ming period) denounced the 
cult as a senseless practice. But as preceding emperors had 
built temples for it, on one ventured to abolish the sacrifices. 
However, the sensible arrangement was made that the various 
sets of gala dress were to be kept in the monastery and not 
destroyed: it was to be an affair for the temple exchequer. (1) 

In fig. 594 it may be noted (as in fig. 172) that Wang 
has three eyes, hence his place in a Taoist temple, sometimes 
even in a Buddist one is door-keeper in a niche opposite the 
entry, helped often by the K'ia Ian (2) or by Wei-i'u. He 
carries a club to drive away evil spirits. Sometimes he is a 
staff-officer for the gods, sometimes he enjoys the principal place 
in a temple as chief object of cult therein. 

(1) Uai-yu-ts'ungkao fa $& ft # Bk. 35 p. 24 etc. 
Ming yih-t'ung-chi Ijjj — jfc ^ Bk. 3 8 p. 3 6. 

(2) filfl i£ See Vol. VII Art XII p. 313 Wei-t'o ^ f£ is Veda, an Indian 
importation of Buddhism). 

Wang-ling-koan (Pagode de T'ong-tcheou). 

W an g -ling -k wan (In a monastery at T'ung Chow). 
























o ^ 



Eg * 



























i — i 













° I 


























II. Sah-chen-jen. fil jg A 

This Sah-sheu-kien |f 1 said to have been a pupil of 
Lin ling-su $fc ft ^ in the reign of Hwui-tsung $r 9J2 (1101-1126 
A.D.)\vas a native of Si-ho 1§ ]pf in Sz-ch'wan and was a doctor 
by profession. One day, by a slip of the pen, his prescriptions 
killed a patient and Sah renounced his practice and left for 
Kiang-nan f£ ~\$ hoping to learn at the feet of the Taoist adepts 
Hii-tsing ^ %$, Lin-ling-su and Wang-shi-ch'en 3Ef#^. But when 
he got as far as Shen-si ^H> ms purse proved to be empty. Three 
Taoist worthies met him and told him that the Adepts whom 
he sought had already left this earth : to console his grief, each 
gave him a talisman. Hii-tsing, for it was no other, gave him a 
written letter ; the second gave a charm that each time, on being 
recited, made the reciter the possessor of seven cash; the third, 
a spell giving power at will to make a thunderbolt strike. 
Sah-sheu-kien parted from these good people, and thanks to a 
recitation of the charm a hundred times a day, covered his 
expenses and even could bestow alms. On arriving at the 
Grand-master's dwelling in Kiang-si, he found all in mourning 
for Hii-tsing, who had died a few days before. The new-comer 
presented his letter, and lo ! it was the handwriting of the great 
Tien-shi (Heavenly Master) % gjfl who had just died. The 
letter ran : We three, Hii-wang and Lin have met Sha and each 
of us has given him a talisman. You can safely send up his 
name to the Emperor for promotion. 

Sah became a famous magician. Having learned that in 
tha town of Siang-yin-hsien f$ |5| jg$ (in Hunan $fj $j in the 
district of Chang-sha Jf; fp ) young boys and girls were offered 
in sacrifice to Ch'eng-hwang jjfc |^ (1) in a temple, he went to 
investigate. As soon as ever he said, "It is an evil spirit, I am 
going to burn his temple," the lightning flashed and the temple 

(1) Ch'eng-hwang JfJ |!| is the tutelary spirit in charge of a town. He 
is the Heavenly Mandarin of the place. See Vol. XI Art III p. 874. 

Fig. d68 

Sa tchen-jen et le Tch'eng-hoang chen sortant des eaux. 

Sah Chen-jen and the God of the city moat coming out of the water. 


was past saving. It was never rebuilt. (1) 

Another account runs as follows. Sah-chen-jen stayed in 
that same temple and during the night the Ch'eng-hwang (or 
local tutelary god j$ |j§l appeared to a villager and ordered him 
to eject an obnoxious Taoist adept from his temple. When the 
villager got as far as the temple gate, Sah-shen-kien met him, 
gave him some sticks of incense and said, "When I am 
gone out, just light this at the foot of Ch'eng-hwang's statue." 
The result was lightning bursting from the incense-burner and 
the destruction of the temple as in the other account. But now 
follows something better to which our illustration (fig. 168) 
refers. Sah wished to put the river between himself and possible 
consequences, but there was no ferryman : so he steered himself 
across and then deposited the fare on the thwart of the ferry. 
Straightway a figure armed with a golden axe rose from the 
river-flood and greeted Shen-kin. He introduced himself as the 
divinity of the burned temple : "I have accused you before 
Shang-ti J^ ^ and have got orders to track you for three years 
and, if I find the slightest flaw in your conduct, I am to strike 
you". "But," retorted Sha, "Why, pray, do you come to me to day 
if the three years are not run yet?" "Because your flawless honesty 
in using the ferry has inspired me with the desire to follow you 
and be your disciple. (2) 

Another variant again to this is found in the Sheu-shen-ki 
(see footnote above). Sah standing on the edge of the river at 
Lung-hing-fu f | $| ^ saw a figure rising from amid the waters. 
This apparition had a golden-breastplate and held a whip in its 
right hand. In answer to Sah, it explained that it was the 
divinity of the temple of Siang-yiu-hsien and that he had been 
fruitlessly spying to find a defect in Salt's behaviour those twelve 
years : as Sha was shortly to be admitted to high heavenly 
dignity, would he kindly find a subordinate position for this 

(1) Sheu-shen-ki (■$ jft IE) ± % p. 35. 

(2) KiaUng-hu-nan-t'ungchi 3g ^ $] gj J§ ^ Bk. 171 p. 29. 



divinity?" 8ha retorted, "Would your cruelty and wickedness 
do me any credit?" The divinity swore to mend his ways, and 
Sah made a successful petition to Yuh-ti ^ ^j? to be allowed to 
employ him as marshal; 

8 hen-kin went on to Ts'ing chow ffi j\\ and there he received 
a message from a group of heaven's officials that orders were just 
coming from heaven summoning him to take up his high divinity 
there. On the word he rose and became immortal. When his 
mortal remains were enclosed in a coffin, it was remarked that 
the coffin was so heavier than before : it was opened and found 
to be empty. So it was known that he had become an immortal. 
The Ming Emperor Siian Teh B^ jjf 3g entitled Safe's True prince 
eminent and beneficent. 

Fig. 169 


The Immortal Chen-yuan, 




ft 7C ftfj 

This immortal was a younger of brother T'ai-yih-hwang- 
jen (1) ^ % || A- He lived a hermit's life on Mt. Wan-sheu 
]l| H ill at Si-t'u "jjg ;£. His master was Tuh-ch'en-ta-fah-shi 31 
H ;A; }& Bijl wno as usual trained him in magical arts. When he 
had finished that course, he went to attend his brother's instruc- 
tions in the temple Peh-yuh-leu ^ J^ on Mt. Ngo-mei ||$ ||| 
in ijj Sz-ch'wan. 

Both of them were among the guests at the great banquet 
of the gods given by Wang-mu 3i# lor the feast of P'an-t'ao-hwui 

\ (2) That is to say, they were both ranked as immortals. 

(1) T'ai-i-hwang-jen lived in the legendary ages, some time after 
Jen-hwang \ J*; distinguished for skill in government, he was elected 
emperor and reigned for over four hundred years. His sons were Tu %$ 
and Chang j|E. He studied the science of immortality on Mt. Ngo-mei #$, 
m tfj (Sz-ch'wan )\\ ). 

(2) Shen-sien-t'ung-kien jj4 f[l| jfi jg Bk. 1, art. 2 p. 5; 
Bk. 1 art. 6 p. 2. 

Bk. 2 art. 9 p. 6 — 8. 



The legend Lieh-tsze is a literary title for a man of the 
Tih tribe (J^) whose name was Ma-tan || -ft. In his first 
existence he had been in charge of forestry under Hien-kung j$ 
ft (882-811 B.C.). But when this prince destroyed the Tih, and 
put Kung-t'ai-tsz ffijk^ to death, Ma-tan Jg^ fled from court. 

In the time of Chao-suen-tsz ^ la ^ (595-576 B.C.) Ma 
reappeared under the name of Tun jjf. He mounted his chariot 
and entered the capital of Tsin ^f . The prince Ling g| had 
intended to bestow office on him, but as the prince was guilty 
of some lack of deference, Tun disappeared in a whirl-wind. So 
the people of the North worship him. 

Now Tun endeavoured to become a pupil of ln-hi fB" 5|£' 
Twice he was rebuffed, some months later he was honoured with 
a look, three years after that with a smile and finally after five 
more years of aspirancy, he was accepted and ln-hi taught him 
how to become immortal. 

Tun married a young woman named Cheng Pft and then 
sought out a new master, one Hu K'iu tsze lin jjj? Jc •-? $ft with 
whom he stayed nine years. Then he removed to Pah-chow ^ 
>}\] where he studied under Lao-shang-shi $£ j§j j£. Here he 
became the intimate of Peh-kao-tsze f £ ^ ^ and attained perfect 
knowledge : he could now walk about the sky on wings of the 
wind. Again he assumed a new name, Yiik'eu 3j® ^g and retired 
from men for 40 years in the kingdom of Cheng ffft. 

It was at this period in Pu-i'ien [§j B3 that he composed 
the eight sections of the Lieh-tsze $J : f, afterwards called the 
Chung-hii-king $>$[$&. He had considerable numbers of pupils 

Fig. 170 



especially at the period of Duke Muh Tfefe. Word was brought 
to the local mandarin Tsz-yang ^ p§ that he had living in his 
district a man of worth who was poor and would be a fitting 
Person on whom to bestow alms. Tsz-yang sent Lieh some 
scores of wheel-barrows laden with grain, but Lieh thanked him 
and declined to accept. When his wife was annoyed by this 
self-denial, he explained that though the mandarin had just then 
believed good reports about himself, he might in the future give 
ear to evil critics and so he preferred not to take any gift • 
Shortly after that, when the people of Cheng put to death Tsz 
yang and his adherents, Lieh-tsze was not molested. (1) 

(1) Cf. Shen-sien-t'ung-Tcien jjft -f|J| M |g Bk. 6 art. 1 p. 7; 




1. The Author. 

No precise date can be fixed for the period of Lieh-tsze 
life, but pretty well all are agreed that it was in the period 
immediately following the death of Confucius, that is, after 479 
B.C. Others say that he was compelled to leave the territory of 
Cheng f||$ by a famine in 398 after he had lived there in poverty 
and obscurity for 40 years. 

His real name was Lieh Yii-k'eu ~$\\ ^ ^. Some critics 
have taken the name of the work "Lieh-tsze" to be a nom-de-plume > 
but in all probability the eight chapters contain for the most part 
the actual teaching of Lieh-isze though edited by his immediate 
disciples and later on modified or added to. 

The actual work is clearly a composite arrangement by 
several authors who have put their own ideas into it. But to 
conclude, as a critic of the Sung % period did, that Lieh-tsz never 
existed in as much as Sz-ma Ts'ien p\ J| jg makes no mention 
of him, would be to go beyond the premises. Rather, there are 
so many semi-historical legends about him that he must have 

2. His Work. 

Lieh-tsze and Chwang-tsze |£ -jp both handle the same 
elusive, vague doctrine that is the Tao of Lao-tsze (^ •? ) in the 
M $& S- However the works of these two are those of real 
thinkers, a rare qualification among Chinese, writers. They have 
developed the Master's doctrine and that is found to be enriched 
and enlarged by the process. 


Lieh-tsze's Treatise was first entitled; Chung-hii-king tft 
J$sL jg? In 742, the Emperor Hiien Tsung M & rjk named it: 
Chung-hii-chen-king tyt ^ $| $g. Later on, two more characters 
were added and it was called : Chung hii-chi-teh chen king ?i|i f$j[ 

m m m *• 

These works have been translated into many languages. 
In French two are available : les Annates du Musee Cuimet, Tome 
XX p. 282 sq. : Wieger S.J. Taoisme II p. 69 to p. 200. Partial 
translations into English : F.H. Balfour in Leaves from my Chinese 
Scrapbook (1887). Giles: Taoist Teachings Wisdom of the Fast 

3. His Doctrine. 

On the one hand, profound and difficult speculations on the 
origin of things v.g. Chapter I. The nature of the primal Tao Hf, 
a begetter not begotten, transformer nor itself tranformed ever- 
existent, immutable beyond sensation, whence issue all the beings 
in the universe in virtue of the two-fold law, of the two fold modali- 
ty of Yang |5|j and Yin |^ (the Active Principle and the Passive). 

On the other hand, complete incertitude as to the origin 
and the end of man. "The living know nothing of their future 
state of death ; the dead know nothing of their future state of 
new life" (an insinuation of metempsychosis). Also there is a 
rude pantheism, "Thy body belongs to the skies and the earth 
of which it is a morsel. Thy life is an atom of cosmic harmony:... 
thy children and babies are thine but belong to the Great All. 
Life is a theft from nature : all men though they be not culpable 
thieves, yet live by stealing from sky and earth." 

Added to this mixture of shallowness and depth one finds 
everywhere in the course of the work the two more prolific ideas 
of Taoism : first, the idea of unconstraint, free-and easy conduct 
in politics and morals; secondly, practices aiming at prolonging 
life, etherializing, refining away the body and arriving at the 
condition of an immortal genius. We find constantly these same 


tendencies in Chinese Taoism, even here in what are after the 
Tao-teh-king the fundamental documents of the doctrine, Lieh-tsze 
and Chwang-tsze (Article XXII). It is these characteristics which 
become more and more marked as we approach the charlatan 
Taoism of Chang Tao-ling jjg aj| §S? (1) 

The text of Lieh-tsze is readily available in coll. 348 and 
349 of the Commercial Press's new edition of the Taoist 
Canonical Writings. 

(1) Tsz'yuan g$ $£ (Lieh Jlj) Encyclopedia Sinica (coulingl Lieh Tsii. 
Wieger Taoisme, Tom II (Les Peres du Systeme Taoiste) passim. 

Nan-hwa-chwang-shenc. 145 


S ffi £ 


Chwang-sheng %£ £ also called Chwang-cheu J$£ J^J and 
Chwang-tsze $£ ^ was a distant descendant of Chwang-Wang 
|£ 3E king of C7i'w 2§ (not his third son as the Sheu-shen-ki ^ 
T& IE would have it). He dwelt at T'ung-shan 0_ [Ij in the 
territory of Mung-hsien j|£ IJ£ where he filled an official position. 
It was there that he professed himself a disciple of Lao-Tsze $£ 
zf- (the historical Chwang died about 320 B.C.) 

During the day, he would often fall asleep and in his 
sleep, he became a butterfly that fluttered gaily about the 
garden. On awaking, his shoulders were still twitching with the 
movement of his wings. Puzzled he consulted Lao-tsze (the 
historical personage died about 490 B.C.) "Oh", said Lao-Kilen 
Ml&> "do you not know that formerly you were a white butterfly 
that was to become immortal after having fed on the quintess- 
ence of flowers and so nourished yourself on the quintessence of 
Yin |^ and Yang % ; but one day you raided the peaches and 
flowers in the garden of W ' ang-mv-niang-niang 3£ -fs£ $j£ $| and 
the Blue Bird, (1) guardian of the garden, killed you and you 
had to be reincarnated." 

Chwang-cheu, at fifty years of age, at last learned the 
secret of his being. Lao-tsze perceiving his virtue, gave him 

(1) The Blue Bird is a metamorphosis of Shen-nung-hwang-ti's daugh- 
ter (the fabulous farmer-emperor jp$ ^ Tgr ^ dated about 2737-2697 B.C.). 
She was drowned in crossing the sea to join Ch'ih Sung Tsze #+£•¥". Then 
she was changed into a blue bird and ordered to fill up the sea by dumping 
all sorts of things into it. Wang-mu took pity on her and made her the 
guardian of her garden. (Cf. Shen-sien-t'ung-Men). 



the five thousand characters of the Tao-teh-king %, ijg $£ (the 
Taoist Classic) : he learned them off with the result that he saw 
his body spiritualize and he was enabled at will to change shape. 
So he resigned his office, (1) left Lao-tsze, crossed over into Ts'i 
^ and became the intimate of a rich merchant T'ao-chu-kung 

m * &• ( 2 ) 

Later on he went off to the kingdom of Ch'u ^ where 
the prince Hwui jg 3£ 488 - 432 B. C, employed him as his 
master and here he wrote the Tung ling-king ^ f| $g in 9 
chapters with the collaboration of his friend Keng-sang-ch'u f% 
H ^. Here also a man named T'ien-ts'i BB ^ took him for his 
son-in-law. This was his third wife for he had already had 
Chwang-k'iao |£ gjf, the daughter of one Ch'u $£ and after her 
death he had married one Sung $£ but he had put her away for 
bad conduct. (3) 

He stayed with his father-in-law in Ch'u for a little over 
a year, then he left for the grotto of Lien-hwa-tung ^g Jfe fljj on 
Mt. Miao-ku-she £g j$ %\ [[] in Chao-ti £g jfc. There he took 
up a pupil one Ting-ling-wei T ^ JSfe (previously known as 
Ting-ku 7 |) a man of Liao-tung j§f ^. 

Then he returned io Ch'u jj§£ and took to writing. He 
produced enough writings to fill five wheel-barrows. Wei-wang 
j^ 3£ king of Ch'u ^g sent thrice a high official to invite him to 
take office. At first he offered a "retainer" of 100 golden pieces, 
and on the other two occasions raised it to 1000 but Chwang-tsze 
was unmoved. He suggested that if the king would have service 
from him, he might call his son to court. The king fell in with 
this suggestion and the son became minister. 

(1) The Sheu-shen-Tci gives a political reason for his resignation; viz 
the wars of Wu-tsz-sii ^ -f- ^. 

(2) The name, as a pledge of successful commerce often occurs on 
the antithetic couplets \Tui-tss ff -^ presented to merchants. 

(3) The Sheu-shen-ki gives him as spouse Jo-ngao shi ^ %l ]fc, and a 
son Chwang-chi-yang :$£ ^ *fc. 

Fig. 171 

Hoai nan-tse. 


T'ao-chow-kung's son ( f>$$ ^ £•) is condemned. 

T'ao had three sons and the second of them T'ao-pien \$ 
$j$ while drunk killed a man. He was arrested and was to be 
beheaded. So the father sent his eldest Ch'ih-sun fp ^ with a 
letter and a quantity of gold to Chwang-sheng in order to get his 
help. He instructed Ch'ih-sun not to meddle with the business 
beyond handing the letter and the gold to Chivang who was to 
act for his friend with the fullest possible liberty. 

Chwang-sheng told the young man he might go back home, 
but the advice was not taken. However Chwang went off to the 
king and told him that an unlucky star was about to appear and 
that the only method to avoid disaster was to set free all priso- 
ners. So the king issued an amnesty. 

Ch'ih-sun did not know of Chwang's action in the matter 
and thinking he had done nothing to help, demanded back the 
gold. Chwang gave it back but he was raging. So back he went 
to the palace and told the king that among the amnestied was 
one T'ao, guilty of homicide, who on being freed had circulated 
a story that the king had been bribed to open the prisons. 
The king got T'ao arrested and beheaded. Ch'ih-sun buried the 
body and returned home to be upbraided by his father : "It is 
your love for gold that has killed your brother." 

Chwang-sheng handed his pupil over to a friend, Feu-k'iu- 
wung ££ _£ H and went off with his wife to Sung %. Here he 
retired to Mt. Nan-hwa ~$ |p [jj at Ts'ao-chow ff ^fl and spent 
his days in writing. There ho wrote the Nan-hwa-king in 33 

A humourous incident is connected with the sage's stay 
there. One day walking at the foot of the mountain, he saw a 
freshly heaped grave-mound with a young widow beside it busily 
engaged in fanning the soil. Interested as a sage should be, he 
approached and begged for an explanation. The widow was 
furthering her husband's last will for he had enjoined on her not 
to marry before the earth on his grave should have dried. Chwang- 


sheng gallantly offered his services to expedite matters, took the 
fan, waved it and lo ! the earth was dry as a bone. The widow 
thanked him and went off on her business. 

Chwang-sheng told the incident to his wife on coming 
back home. The lady was shocked at such unseemly conduct in 
a fresh widow. "Oh, not at all," said the sage, "that's the usual 
way of the world." His wife, scenting the sarcasm, protested 
under oath that it was not her way. 

Shortly ofterwards, Chwang-sheng died and his griefstrick- 
en wife buried him. A few days after the funeral a young man 
Ch'u-wang-sun $g 3£ ~% (Grandson of the King of Ch'u is the 
translation) arrived intending to become Chwang's pupil. "What ! 
Dead! Then show me to the tomb!" And he did reverence to 
the grave. Finding an empty room somewhere there, he settled 
down to study. When half a month had passed, the widow 
approached Ch'u-ivdng-san's servant, a discreat elderly man. 
Was his master married? "No!" Then would the man be good 
enough to act as go-between? Ch'u-wang-sun in fact made some 
difficulties about the impropriety of unseemly haste. "But", said 
the lady, "my husband is dead and that is all that is to be said." 
So she put off her widow's weeds and got ready for fresh 
nuptials. Then Wang-sun brought her face to face with her 
husband's tomb and said, "Your man is risen!" She scanned 
the face opposite her and sure enough, it was her own Chwang- 
sheng she hanged herself for very shame. Chtvang buried her 
in the vacant tomb and struck up a song. 

Having burnt his house, off he went to Puh-shui }0| 7]^ 
where he engaged in fishing. Thence he went to Chung -tiao-shan 
4 1 i$ ill where he met Fung-heu JU, ^ and his mistress Huen-nu 
3£ -fc (or Ji -JjJ: Mother of Heaven). With him he loved to 
walk the skies or visit astral dwellings. One day, dining with 
the gods at Wang-mu's (3£ -J£), he was invested by Shang-ti Jl 
tft with the kingship in Jupiter and assigned as his palace the 
dwelling vacated by Mao-mung ^ -]f|, a stellar god who had 


reincarnated himself in the Chow dynasty and had not since 
come back to claim his starry abode. Now Shang-ti recommend- 
ed that in future leave of absence should be asked and not 
merely taken. (1) 

(1) Shen-sien-t'ung-Men jjjiji {\\[ $& $g Bk. 6, art 5, p. 4: art 9 p. 2 
Sheu-shen-U -8 #$£ (J: 1?) (I part) p. 62-63. 




I. The man. 

Usually known as Chwang-tsze this famous Taoist's family 
name was Chivang but his personal name Chow Jgj, with the other 
characters Tsze-hiu ^f- $c. His posthumous title is Nan-hwa 
chen-jen ffa §|| jf| \ and he merits the "chen-jen" by his vigo- 
rous, original thinking. 

He was born at Mung-hsien ffc J$£ in Sui Yang fjff: j^ in 
the duchy of Sung % and lived at Tung-shan ^ [Jj. According 
to some authorities he was originally from Liang $fc. 

Chwang filled an official post at Mung-hsien but resigned 
and went off to the kingdom of Ts'i H where he formed an 
intimate friendship with Tao-chu-kung ^ ^ fe (1), an important 
merchant in that country. 

From Ts'i, Chwang went to the kingdom of Ch'u ^ where 
he composed the Tung-ling-king flej J| $g in nine chapters. It 
was in Ch'u that the king Wei Wang j^ ;=£ thrice offered him 
official position. 

II. His Work. 

In 742 A. D., the T'ang Emperor Hiien-tsung Jf ]£ ^ 
conferred on Chwang-tsze the posthumous title of Nan-hwa-chen- 
jen j|f Ijl j|| A and consequently the title of his writings has 
over since been ^ ^g jjl #g. The text will be found in the 

(1) i. e. Fan-Li ?£ J& having helped as Minister to the final victory of 
Yiieh j|| over IT'u ^, left Yueh in 472 for Ts'i where he became rich by com- 
merce under the name of Ch'c I tsz Pi Stl^^f ft and subsequently became 
minister. Again he resigned and wandered off to T'ao (5{g (S.W. Shantung): 
here again he became rich trading and farming under the names of 
T'ao-chu-Jcung |5fg ^ ft. 


Commercial Press edition of the Taoist Canon under N° 687 
(coll. 349, 350, 351) ; in Wieger (Taoisme II) N° 665. 

French translations are to be found in "Les Annates du 
Musee Guimet, torn XX p. 213 sq. : Wieger, S.J., Taoisme II 
p. 202-509. In English there is Giles: Chwang Tsu, Mystic, 
Moralist and Social Reformer. Legge : Texts of Taoism (Sacred 
Books of the East). 

The treatise comprises three sections: 

1. Nei-pien pg |f in 7 chapters : work of Chwang-tsze. 

2. Wai-pien #[> ^ in 15 chapters. 

3. Tsah-pien $$ |f in 11 chapters. 

The last two sections are the work of pupils, not of the 
master himself. 

Chwang-tsze collaborated with his friend Keng-sang-ch'u 
M. Jl M commonly called Kang-tsang-tsze % ^ ^-, in the com- 
position of the Tung-ling chen king j|^| |^g (in vol. 349 of 
the new C.P. edition of the Taoist Canon). 

These two works together with Lao-tsze's Tao-teh-king j£ 
ir M iM $2> Lieh-tsze's #] ^ Tch'un hit chen king tyi ^ jg> $g , 
Yin-hi's ^r j| Wen-shi-chen-king (1) -£ £§ ^ f?g, and Wen-tsze's 
-i£ ^ T'ung-hiien-chen-king j| J ^ g form the real corpus of 
Taoist doctrine. 

IIT. His Doctrine. 

A. The critic. 
Chwang-tsze has flashes of wit, slashing retorts that 
have passed into proverbs. He is an unrivalled master in the 
art of piercing the weak spot. Even Confucius is not spared. 
Having brought to the bar of the critic's justice that Utopian 
politician "the fair speaker from Lu, that monger of silly tales 
to the credit of Wen-wang t£ J£ and Wu-wang ^ 3E ", Chwang- 

(1) Probably the work of T'ien t'ung-siu ffl [i] ^ (c 742 A.D.) Yin-hsi, 
the guardian of the pass Kan-Vuh ]5f & through which Lao-tsze passed 
out West. 


tsze concludes with this final sentence : "He may count as a 
teller of the antique, not as a master of the antique." — "to want 
to fit ancient ways to the ideas of one's contemporaries, is 
running your car over the water and your boat over the land." 

B. The Philosopher. 

At least he has the honesty to confess ignorance as to 
the law that governs the great cosmic transformations, cosmic 
evolution, the origin of the world. "To say of the universe : "some 
one has made it", or it has come from nothing are alike inde- 
monstrable propositions." Chivang-tsze professes to know nothing 
about the essence of the Chao ^g, of that Principle which he knows 
only by its external manifestations. To ask questions about the 
principle or to answer them alike betrays ignorance as to the 
very Principle itself. Questions or answers concerning its nature 
are foolish and inept for they suppose in the people who make 
them a total ignorance of the nature of the universe and of the 
Great Beginning. Surely a warning for commentators of the 
Tao-teh-king and for those who would devise systems of interpre- 
tation for it. 

The principal points of the doctrine contained in Chwang-tsz's 
works may perhaps be reduced to these heads: 

1. Non-interference, non-assertion, inaction, " apathy" : — 
Therein is the way of Heaven. "If a man would last long, he 
must moderate his own self, not press to the extreme of any- 
thing, always stop half-way. In this fashion one will keep one's 
body intact, maintain life to the very last, support one's parents 
till their death and last oneself to the very end of one's allotted 
span." "One makes life last by using it only on that which 
does not use it up." Chwang-tsze ch. III. 

2. Egoism.— Avoid what might use up the vital principle 
i.e. a) Affliction and worries, b) Too lively a desire of results 
and success, c) Working over-busily at making oneself useful. 
"If you are a useful man, you will not live to be an old one." 


"The axe spares, the useless tree but cuts down any one that has 
got an acknowledged value : the over-zealous man is over-used." 

3. Pantheism.— "All beings are participation in the Great 
All". Heaven and earth make a mighty crucible in which beings 
undergo transformation; let us leave the founder to do as he 
will. We should accept in good part all that transformation 
fashions out of us. The material of existing things has served 
and will serve in due succession for a quantity of different 
beings: let us leave full liberty to the transforming principle to 
do its work. Your body is merely the loan of some coarse matter 
which heaven and earth have made to you for a span of time* 
Your life is a combination of subtile matter which also you have 
from heaven and earth. 

4. Taoist Wisdom — Let Heaven act and do not attempt 
to aid its action. The crowning height of wisdom is to fall into 
line with the march of universal evolution. Let time work, swim 
with the current, concentrate on inaction. Real science, real 
wisdom consists in maintaining one's life to the end of the years 
assigned by nature without shortening it by one's own fault. 
Chwang-tsze. Chap. VI and XL 

Cf. Wieger Tom. II p. 408-411, 438, 439 etc. 


Chi-na wen hioh ski ^ M % jg £ Vol. 67. ±_ ^ p. 17-18 p. 21-22. 

Chen-sien-Ueh-chwang jjjiji f|I| ^l] f$ ( J^ !£). 

Ts'z-yuen g$ $g (Chwang $£). 

Mayers. Chinese Reader's Manual; N° 92 Chwang Ciww N° 127, Fan Li 
N*> 3 3 6, Lao tsse. 

Shen-sien t'ung-lien^ {\]\ Ji f 1. c. in text above. 




m s ? 


The Legend. 

This worthy was originally one IAu-ngan |flj $ and was 
king of the districts south of the Hirai in 122-116 B. C, that is 
in the period Yuan-sheu % ffi of the Han Emperor Wu-ti jf| $£ 
^f. His younger brother was Liu-se §lj $fj, king of Lu-kiang jjS 
yX- How the former came to get the title used above will be 
explained by the narrative. 

IAu-ngan had the reputation of being well versed in lear- 
ning and especially in astrology. After studies under Kilen-tsze 
}j| -y% a famous magician who taught him the three treatises of 
the K'in-sin 3p ,fy (The Tempering of the Heart), Liu wrote the 
Nei-shu [*J *' (The Inward Writing) in 21 chapters, the Chung- 
pien cfj H (The Mean) in 8 chapters and then the three books 
of the Hung-pao-wan-pih $| 'f( ~$! } Jfl on transformations, a work 
of 100,000 characters. Liu was responsible for famous cookery 
recipes: he taught the people to grind beans, to make the pickle 
"T&iang-yeu |f -/^ and the famous bean-curd cheese Teu-fu ja $|. 

About this time people remarked in the kingdom a young 
man who called himself Wang-chung-kao 3E f^ ^ an( l there was 
one very old man who told how he had seen this young person 
a very long time before ; in fact he was one who made his 
appearance in every generation. One Wu-pei fa $£ brought this 
to the king's notice and the king had Wang summoned to court 
and received him with all honour. After a long time, Wang at 
last confided to the king that he was the brother of Hien-yuen- 
hwang-ti ff ijfg ji ^ (i.e. Hwang-ti or else an emperor from the 

Fig. 172 

Wang yuen-choai. 
Generalissimo Wang 


ninth fabulous epoch) and that he had retired to Mt. Peh 4b ill 
at Shang-kuh J^ @ because the Ts'in emperor She-hwang |(| #£ 
^ (211-209 B. C.) had summoned him to write characters. "I 
make it my business" he went on "to teach men the doctrine of 
immortality." The king of course immediately asked how that 
could be achieved. "My friends will come to teach you", said 
Wang-chung-kao 5£ ftfi "^fj. 

A few months afterwards, Wang left the country and eight 
venerable old men with white beards and hair presented themsel- 
ves at the palace gate requesting an audience. Word was 
brought to the king and he sent a smooth-tongued official to 
.interview these importuners and get rid of them. They were 
told that the king was on the look-out for three things, immor- 
tality, deeper knowledge of the Doctrine, magic craft for killing 
tigers and rearing buildings, and, as old men were of no use in 
furthering those ends, the official could not dare to usher them 
into the royal presence. The old men smiled: it was no crime to 
look at a king and old men might be useful after all. And with 
that they turned themselves into radiant young men! Off went 
the official to the king and King Liu in person came out to the 
palace door to receive them, barefoot, lor he forgot in his haste 
to slip on his shoes. He brought them into the Sz-sien-i'ai 
Palace y g, f[{j jf and there prostrate before them, he professed 
himself their pupil. 

The eight resumed their venerable aged forms and recited 
to him what they could do by way of controlling winds, thunder 
and the elements. The king asked them for the elixir: they 
explained to him the 36 books of the Hiien-yuh-tav-king( Alchemy) 
S Ifl-| and every day escorted him to collect magic simples. 
On the Pah-kung-shan, the Mountain of the Eight Venerables A 
^ [Ij near Shcu-chow H }>\] (Longevity Town) they concocted 
the elixir. 

In 122 B.C. (7c ^ year), Liu-ngan's son, Liu-ts'ien ^\\ j§§ 

who believed himself to be an incomparable swordsman challen- 


ged a military officer, one Lei-pei f| #£, highly skilled with the 
sword, to a fencing-bout. In the match Lei-pei inadvertently 
wounded the prince. Fearful of consequences, Lei plotted with 
one of his friends Wu-pei fj£ $l£ anc l forwarded to the Emperor 
Wu-ti a denunciation of the two Liu brothers, the kings, as 
hatching a revolt against the throne. The emperor on receipt 
of this sent an envoy Tsung-cheng ^ J£ to punish them. The 
king of Lu-kiang, Liu-se, the younger brother, hung himself on 
hearing of this turn of fortune. 

Before the imperial delegate got to Hivai Nan, the eight 
immortals came to invite Liu-ngan to go off with them. Liu not 
knowing of his brother's death, wanted to fetch him first ; on 
hearing of his loss, he demanded the death of the false L^ei-pei 
and Wu-pei. But the eight dissuaded him for, said they, those 
who would not kill even insects, could not be the killers of men. 
So they took the king with them to Mt. Peh-knng and all moun- 
ted up to the heavens. They left their simples and their alembic 
behind with the result that certain hens and dogs ate and 
became immortal. Now the Eight led the king to a mountain 
beyond the seas where all the genii were gathered together. They 
instructed him to address the genii as "Uncle, Immortal One" 
and to serve them with respect in the hope of being himself 
admitted to the palace of Yuh-ti 3£ ^. 

Liu-ngan obeyed, but not having yet shaken off the royal 
way, his manner of speaking and acting displeased the Immortals 
as smacking of superiority and not redolent of due humility. So 
a complaint was lodged with Yuh-ti, and the Heavenly Sovereign 
seeing that Liu was not yet ripe for immortality, was for sending 
him back to earth for reincarnation. Now the Eight came again 
to the rescue and suggested that he be permitted to live for 
three years at a distance from the Palace, alone and without any 
official functions in order to give him time for conversion. After 
conversion, he could be entrusted with office. Yuh-ti agreed. 
The first step was to change the king's name. It was now that 
he took the name "The Sage from South of the Uivai," 


Now Hwai-nan-tsze begged the Eight to save his brother 
whose death was such a bitter grief to him. The Eight went off 
upon the Western seas and got a branch of a fragrant wood 
called "the tree that recalls the soul" Fan-hwan-shu jS^tfU : with 
this they made a pill and gave it to the dead man : he revived, 
practised virtue and was saved. 

The Eight accompanied by Ho-heu fpf $| revisited Hwai- 
nan-tsze, instructed him in all the mysteries related to him, and 
escorted him to Tung- wan g-~kung ^ 3E ^, king of the Immortals 
and he conferred on the sage the vacant post of T'al-kili-chen-jen 

± U m A (1). 

(1 Cf. Shen-sien-t'ung-lcien jjjiji f[]j M gg Bk. 8. Art. 2 p. 3-7. 




I. Tlio Literary School of Hwai-nan-tsze ffi; ^f ^-. 

The court of the King of Hwai-nan 7^ ]fj was the gather- 
ing place of scholars of all different shades of opinion but Taoism 
predominated. Magicians and devotees of occultism met there 
in great numbers. The prince himself Liu Ngan committed sui- 
cide in 122 B.C. on an accusation of revolt. 

Liu Tvh |?|J fg King of Ho-kien -/pj fpj fostered a school 
which formed an exact contrast with Liu-Ngan's in Hwai-nan. 
Whereas the Hwai-nan band strayed from classic tradition and 
refinement and tended to Taoism and magic, the Ho-kien school 
worked at the restoration of the ancient canonical writings. The 
latter were Confucian, the former Taoist. 

II. The Works of Hwai-nan-tsze fH f^f -J-. 

The works attributed to Hwai-nan-tsze are collected uncle** 
the title Hwai-nan-tsze-hung-lieh-kiai yf: ffa -^ #| ^J tfjfr. It is 
included in the Taoist Canon and is to be found at N° 1,200 of 
the Commercial Press edition. It contains 28 Kiien %fc and is 
printed in the five volumes 863, 864, 865, 866, 867. 

It is also called Hung pau wan pih |J| ||f "|| J|l. 
It is divided into three sections: 

1. Net shit pg ^21 chapters. 

2. Chung shu 4 1 fir 8 Chapters. 

3. Wai shu $|n *" Dissertations on various subjects. 

This work is a collection of some of the literary produc- 
tions of the motley company that frequented the court of the 
prince of Hwai-nan. 

It is very probable that Hwai-nan-tsze had personally little 
or no share in it. The accounts to be found in the Shen-sien- 


t'ung-kien $ji f[jj jj§ $|j and other Taoist books as to his personal 
labours in the composition of the collection are at least very 

Nevertheless this collection which we owe to Liu Hiang 
|ilj [nj, the Librarian and President of the Committee for the 
Canonical Books, is a very precious document for the reason that 
it sums up perfectly the state of Taoism at the period 150-122 
B.C. It marks a period of unmistakable degradation in the real 
Taoist doctrine of Lao-tsze ^ ^, Chwang |jf ^-, Lieh ~Fj\\ ^ and 
Wen -*£ rf*. Decadence appears in insertion of marvellous hap- 
penings, the devotion to alchemy, legends. The work or compi- 
lation known as Hwai-nan-tsze' 's is the dawn of degenerate, 
charlatan Taoism. It is the first stage of falling off, a very 
distinct branching off towards the Neo-taoism of Wang Pao ^ 
^| and Chang Tao-ling 5| j| |^. 



3E 7C 8l|i 


Generalissimo Wang's father was Wanp-ch'en ]£ gi and 
his mother Chao-shi Q$ J£. His father was already dead when 
the child was born in the Ping-shen year pj ffi of Chengkwan 
£ g| period, i.e. 63f A. D. His parents lived in Loh-li $$. jg. at 
Siang-yang H|§. He was called VFanghioit (ngoh) 3£ ig and also 
as fore-name Tung-ch'eng J^ f$. 

He was gifted by nature with abnormal muscular strength : 
but for study he had not the least interest. If disputes broke 
out in fairs and markets, he brought the parties to reason and 
everybody was full of praises for his sense of justice. Otherwise, 
as he was of an impetuous character, persons who pushed their 
own schemes detested him, and he could never succeed in cor- 
recting them. 

At Fu-fung fo JU,, there was one Wang-heh-hu Ji |& $£ 
i.e. Wang the Black Tiger. This man borrowed our hero's name 
Wang-wu (ngoh) 3£ |g and under that name carried off women 
and sold them. So much in awe did the peasants stand of the real 
Wang-wu 3£ ^ that they were afraid to protest, not knowing 
that they were being fooled by an imposter. The real Wang-wu, 
getting to hear of it, killed 3E H ^ Wang-heh-hu and the people 
then gladly went to the criminal court to defend their liberator. 
But Wang-wu on appearing refused to kneel before the mandarin 
and so was condemned as guilty. He thereupon grew furious, 
his hair stood on end and he cried death to all such bandits and 
deliverance for the people from their malpractices. He flung 
himself at the mandarin who was barely rescued by his body- 

Fig. 173 

Nan-hoa Tchoang-cheng (Tchoang-tze). 
Nan-hwa Chwang sheng (Chwang-tze). 


Wang once went to King-siang $|J ||, where he found that 
a demon of the River (Kiang yx) dwelling in an old temple was 
befooling the people. Every year on the sixth day of the sixth 
month processions in his honour were held and people had to 
provide ten oxen, ten pigs, ten sheep and wine for the sacrifice, 
declared to be for the averting of epidemics. Tt was a cruel 
imposition: people at times had to sell their children to meet it. 
So Wang-wu burned temple and idol. Then the evil spirit stirred 
up a raging wind but Sah-chen-jen |§ jjfc J\ (see Article XIX) 
appeared and countered it and the evil spirit bad to take to 

Yuh-ti 3£ ^ canonized him with the title: Wang Saga- 
cious Generalissimo : also he had a seal big as a man's head 
engraved for him with the four characters: Ch'eh-sin-chung-liang 
iff 'b & $< • "Sincere and Conscientious". He also conferred 
on him the office of spirit protecting the capital of the Empire. 

Wang Tuen-shwai was most beneficent. As soon as ever 
the Taoist priests communicated with him any business by means 
of their charms, he straightway settled it. He puts to death 
all the grievous wrong-doers he can discover and so people are 
on their guard against offending him. He is of a very irascible 
temperament: he always keeps close to the Gate of Heaven and 
as soon as Yuh-ti commissions him to redress any wrongs down 
in the world, he is off at once without delay. (1) 

(1) Sheu-shen-U $% %$ IE (T i£ ) P. 10. 



S1E-T'1EN KltJN (T) B. 

m * m 


Sie-t'ien-kiun's name was 8ie-shi-ywng Df ft H, his fore- 
name was Lei-hing fjf %f : his father was Sie-ngen HJ" $ y . When 
he was born on one first of the month during the period Chen- 
kwan J[ H 627-650 A.D., fiery wheels fell from the skies over 
Shan-tung and lighted up the air with a marvellous light. Endowed 
with a violent character and very irascible, Sie-shi-yung Hf ft ^ 
knew no fear, but his conduct was upright and he became sub- 
prefect of Shan-yin \\] p|£. A superior official in Liao-tung ^ ^ 
pressed for the remittance of the taxes in order to " squeeze " a 
thousand of taels from Shi-yung. But the latter gave nothing 
but rather reported the matter to the viceroy who visited his 
displeasure on the higher official of the two. This latter then 
demanded of Shi-yung a present of a helmet and breastplate of 
silver. The sub-prefect passed off on him an ox-hide with tin- 

The superior officer now devised another scheme for 
paying off Shi-yung. He sent a memorial to the viceroy praising 
his enemy's military qualities and recommending him as the only 
one capable of dealing with the rebels. So Shi-yung was put in 
charge of the expedition and came off victorious. Being a care- 
ful commander, he foresaw that the rebels might immediately 
try a surprise attack. He stationed his soldiers around the camp, 
not in it, occuping the best commanding positions: sure enough, 
the enemy returned but found himself overwhelmed with arrows 
and had to retire. 

Yuh-ti 3£ tfi canonised Sie as Hwo-teh-Pien kiiin fc ^ 5^ 
;g Heavenly Sovereign of the Beneficent Planet Mars. He has 

Fig. 4 74 


Sieh, the heavenly leader. 

sie-t'ien-kiun 163 

control of summer. He is depicted as wearing a Tao-adept's 
head-gear, and his feet move on fiery wheels: in his hands he 
carries a golden staff. (1) It is easy to distinguish him from Na- 
ch'a (Article XV) by the difference of attributes. Sometimes he 
is depicted with six arms and three heads (Tantra style) and 
riding on his fiery wheels : so he is to be found on a representa- 
tion from the Hwo-sing Temple. 

(1) Sheu-sJien-Jci (T #) ^ # IE P- 4-5. 


II\YU\ T -K1-P'A.\G-YUE1\-SHYVA1 (T.B.) 

u ?& m 7c Biti 


This worthy's name was P'ang-kiao ^fg ^j : his fore-name 
was Chang-ts'ing -fi: $|. His father P'ang-ting ^g % and his 
mother (Yao $[c was her family name) lived at Tu-k'eu $£ P by 
Han-kiang ^| £j\ He was born during the reign of the Han 
Emperor Hien-ti fj| Jffft ^ in the year Kwei-yeu %£ jSj, 193 A.D. 
on the Kwei-hai bay (the cyclic number ^ %) in the eleventh 

All his ancestors had been boat-people and the family 
enjoyed a high reputation among travellers. Once a lady had 
passed the ninth of the ninth moon on board their boat and had 
left behind her a hundred pounds in gold. She came back next 
day to recover them and P'ang-kiao /f| ^ gave her back the sum 
entire and would not accept the gratuity she offered. 

On the twenty-eighth of the twelfth moon, in the evening, 
a young woman came to cross the river. It was snowing and 
nobody dared to go across. P'ang-kiao gave her shelter, got her 
clothes dried, and on the thirtieth his father took her on board to 
bring her to her home. But it was a stormy day, the River was 
rough and the boat capsized. P'ang-kiao leaped into the waves, 
bent on saving his father : thrice he brought him to the bank and 
thrice the wave swept them out to the depths. Yet P'ang-kiao 
and the father managed at length quite exhausted to save them- 
selves. The woman had meanwhile disappeared, but it was she 
who really had saved them : it was Kwan-yin-p'u-sah |J| ^ 

^- 3£ 

When the father and son got safe on to the bank, they found 

Fig. 175 

Hoen-k'i-pang yuen-choai. 

The Generalissimo Hwun-k'i-pang. 

hvvan-ki-p'ang-yuen-shwai 165 

there scores of Kwei % spirits of the dead, ghosts (1) weeping 
all around them disappointed that they had not been able to 
drown them (2). 

(1) On the 30th day of the 12th moon, all these ghosts leave the 
nether regions or other abodes and gather about rivers, lakes, streams in 
order to drown anybody who ventures to come there. Anyone of the 
ghosts that secures his victim, gives his place in Hades to the soul of the 
drowned and himself enters a new incarnation. This same is true of the 
30th of the 7th moon. Hinc illae lacrimae. 

(2) Sheu-slien-M ("p ^-) ^ # "IE P- 8 



* it erfj 


IA-fung ^ ^J" was born exacty at midday on the fifth of 
the moon in 592 A.D, (in the year Jen-tsze ££ ^ , during the Sui 
|5j| dynasty). His father's name was Li-fang ^ ^ and his 
mother's Sun-ski ~% ^. Kin-hiang-h'eu $| £L P was tne place 
of his birth. 

Li-fung became a formidable pirate on the Southern seas: 
he had fled from his home because he had killed the murderer 
of a neighbour's parents : to this step he had been led by an 
irresistible temper and herculean strength. He took refuge in 
a temple of a marine divinity and there five genii who saw him 
coming cried out, "Here's an angel coming !" Li-fung asked 
them how they knew and they explained that as officers of Lung 
wang f| 3: their business was to seize the water demons. So 
saying, they brought out a sword from their den, gave it to 
Li-fung and disappeared. This vision kept puzzling him thereafter. 

Here are some of his exploits. On the Kiang £q (the 
River) he one day spotted a suspect boat and went on board: it 
was a pirate-ship full of young women and laden with valuables. 
He set the women free and lectured the pirates on their robberies. 

On. another occasion, still on the Kiang, he perceived in 
the bed of the river a monstrous devil, and all about were huge 
waves stirred up by a terrifying wind. Li-fung jumped out of 
the boat and began to walk over the waves: a black wind raged 
franctically hollowing out the waters : the devil appeared face to 
face with Li in the form of a colossal Kiong-chu yj. Itf — a river- 
pig, a porpoise — large as a mountain with a tail more than 90 
feet long and attended by seven other demons. Li-fung killed 

Fig. 176 

Li yuen-choai. 
Generalissimo Li. 


them all and the storm grew calm. The next night a spirit 
came to thank him for his exceptional services and to assure 
him that he would beg Yuh-ti 3£ *^, to recompense him for 
them. Yuh-ti did reward him by canonization with the title of 
"Generalissimo Li, chief of the advance-guard" ; he was assigned 
two marshals as assistants (1). 

(1) Sheu-shcn-M ^ f,t|j |£ ("p #) P. 9, 10. 


LUI-T«lEN-KltJN (T) 

si * m 


The work Tsah-ki-chwan ^| IE f$ ca *' s him Liu-tsun §ij $£ : 
Liu-fuli (|?lj |@) was his father and his mother was a Sic fit. He 
was born during the dynasty of the Eastern Tsin J f in a 
fisherman's boat at Min-kiang [Ijj£ yx on the 12th of the 8th moon 
of the year Keng-tsze J^ -T (a cyclic number that might stand 
here for 340 or 100 A.D.). 

One day when his mother was drawing water from the 
Kiang yX< he fell into the water but was so lucky as to cling to 
some floating wreckage until his father could haul him out. 
Though his family was very poor, the}- managed to send him to 
study under Lo-chen-jen JH jf| J{ who taught him the " five 
thunders" recipe by which he could control winds and rains. By 
a public spirited use of this power, he made himself the benefac- 
tor of the countryside and all the people went to honour him 
as a p'u-sah, So he quitted the place but the peasants erected 
a temple to him and prayed to him with sure effect. 

At this time, a drought affected the regions under the 
Eastern capital. The Emperor was in great distress and on 
hearing that Liu-tsun was an infallible help, he went and prayed 
to him. The drought was broken and the harvest was excellent. 
The Emperor conferred on Liu the title of Hiien-hwa-is'e-tsi- 
chen-kiiin ]£ \ fc •§£ "Hf iSL JJ" : True prince merciful benefactor of 
the Empire. Yuli-ii 3£ tffr ratified this title and entrusted to Liu 
the Supervision of the Five Cereals. (1) 

(1) Sheu-shen-ki $ j$ %l ( f :#) p, 10. 

Fig. 177 


Liu, the heavenly leader. 

Fig. 178 

Les deux generalissimes Kao et Wang. 
The two Generalissimos, Kao and Wang 



3E jg H 7C ft|J 


The "Fung ski chivan" $$ {£ 1^ gives them the names 
Wang-t'ieli 3£ |£, Wang the Iron and Kao-t'ung "^ $sj, Kao the 
Brazen. Wang was from the south of Yung-ch'eng |$ $c and A'ao 
from the north of Ki-yung |jjj |f|. Both were born the same 
year, 839 B.C. while Li-wang J|F 3£ of the Chow dynasty was 
living, though just then he was in exile and a sort of republic 
was in power. 

The two had become sworn brothers: they held various 
offices in different provinces of the empire but when Han-wang 
jjs| 3i took no account of their advice, they resigned. 

One day Kao-t'ung informed his friend that he was going 
away on a voyage to Nan-ling \fa $(. "Do you not know that 
that district is infested with tigers?" asked his solicitous friend. 
"Death or life is of small account," answered K'ao-t'ung. So he 
went off, and of course shortly his friend must follow him. It 
was only Wang-t'ieh who met a tiger and he killed it. K'ao-t'ung 
went to meet his friend, anxious lest he be the prey of tigers 
and they made the return journey together. This friendship it 
was that won the popular titles of Iron and Copper: so solidly 
was their friendship welded. 

In consideration of their braver)-, Yuh-ti 3£ *$? conferred 
>n them the title of Superintendants of the Tiger Hill. (1) 

(l) Sheu-shen-M (T # ) 4f ^ BE P- 10-11. 





(of the Thunder Department) 

m # 7c Brfj 


The family name of this personage T'ien EB and his other 
names are explained below. 

This worthy, really being terrestrial electricity, took to 
himself a human body in a field EB. His birth took place amid 
terrifying portents : thunder, lightning, gales and rain ; but when 
the new-born babe striding a huge serpent appeared, all the 
bees fled to feed him with their honey. 

On growing up, he took the family name of T'ien (EB 
Field) with the personal name of Pih (Jji Complete) because his 
birthplace was a field set off with flowers of which he presuma- 
bly was the latest, the finishing touch. Then he retired to a 
hermitage on Mt. Luh-lu yen jjj$j |j| jg. (Windless Precipice). It 
was at the time when Nil wo ski ■$£ M i£ (1) was engaged in 
stopping up the north-east gap in the sky; she was not successful 
with her five-coloured earth. So T'ien-pih came to her help with 
a mixture of the essences of fire, water and primal rock matter; 
the fusion was forwarded by the South wind and then a dreadful 
crash shook earth and sky. The gap was filled. 

Later, he helped Hien-yuen-hwang-ti ijif $R §t *$?, to reduce 
the rebel Ch'i yeu ^ -fa by showering on the rebel five-coloured 
fire amid a whirl of wind and thunder. Hivang-ti conferred on 
him the title and function of Dragon-master. But T'ien found 
all this incompatible with being a hermit and declining withdrew 
to Hiva-siu |jl If. Henceforth he added Hwa to his name. 

(1) See account of Nii-wo id % K Vol. XII Art. XLVI p. 1070. 

Fie. d79 

Le generalissime Tien-hoa-pi. 
The Generalissimo Tien hwa-pih. 

t'ien-hwa-pih yuan-shwai 171 

When in the reign of the Emperor Yao J=|, the demon 
monsters and the ten suns were causing trouble and tenor on 
earth, Yuh-ti jg, ^ by edict conceded T'ien-yuen-shivai the right 
to range over heavens, sun and moon, riding on the lightning 
and carrying in his hand the thunder-banner. 

At the end of the Han ^ dynasty, the demons again 
scoured the earth and human perversity was at its worst. So 
Yuh-ti canonized T'ien Hwa with the title Lei-men-pih yuan shwai 
fa P^ Jp 7C El]], Pih generalissimo of the Thunder Gate (i.e. 
Ministry or Department, Porte). He entrusted to him the supervi- 
sion of the twelve subdivisions of the Department to aid Chen-wu 
jH jf£ in overcoming the demons of epidemics, attending to 
droughts and floods, and putting to death criminals. (1) 

(1) Sheu-shen-M fa jf,f |£ (T= #) P. 11. 



ffl If tc arfi 


This fabulous personage was the son of the Green Dragon 
who flying from the pursuit of Ts'e tsi chi h kiiin *£ \$ m. 1g, had 
come to hide in the grotto Hwang-sha-tung (Yellow-sand Cave) 
jf t^ i[nj in Sz-ch'wan and there had taken to himself a beautiful 
woman called P'ang Jff. Ts'e-tsi overtook them as the woman was 
with child : the Green Dragon took to flight and the woman hid 
herself in a field. The pursuer found her there and caused the 
instant birth of the child by a frightening pass of his sword. He 
did no harm to the child though it had the head of a dragon, but 
bade the mother suckle it. As the rain fell and the thunder 
growled at the moment of the birth in the field, the name T'ien 
yil, Field Rain, was given the child. 

At the age of six Tien-yu was entrusted to Chaiuj-chen jen 
</H m. A to be educated : his tutor taught him the science of 
thunder and gave him the name Ts'uen-ling & f|. Then in 
retirement on Mt. Tsc-hwa (Purple Flower Mt.) ^ |p \\}, he 
began to meditate on how he came into being and asked a venera- 
ble Taoist adept to enlighten him. Thus he learned that his father 
was the Green Dragon and that his mother, now blind, was 
living at Lung-ijcu p§| :£f in Sz-ch'wan. 

This news inspired him with deep resentment for the 
pursuer of his father. Two years after that, he went to visit 
his mother and in a fit of resolution to avenge his father, he 
tore up the cloth of his tent and made of it a flag: with this he 
coursed the skies to hunt out his enemy. His mouth exhaled 
water which became clouds and at the waving of his standard, 
the thunder rolled. Twelve demons stopped his career and 
T'ien-ijii enraged gave battle, but there was no decision. 

Fig. 180 

Tien Yu Yuen-choai. 

Tien-yu Yuan-shwai (Generalissimo Tien-yii). 

t'ien-yu yuan-shwai 173 

Yuk-ti 3£ iff then summoned T'ien-yu and explained that 
Ts'e-tsi had been aiming- only at the general good by driving off 
the Green Dragon and so T'ien-yu must not bear him a grudge: 
as for the twelve demons, though indeed they deserved death, 
now that they had stayed him from vengeance they desired to 
become his subordinates. 

Now Yuh-ti canonized him as Hiang-yao-k'iu-sie yuan shivai 
pj£ ^c ^ffi 3f(S 7C Bfjl : tne Generalissimo conqueror of hobgoblins and 
exorcist of the obscene. He is represented as holding in his 
left a thunder-bolt and in his right a yellow flag. Fig. 180 shows 
a character inscribed ^ on the triangular flag attached to a dart: 
this is ling ^ ; it is a royal commission. (1) 

(1) Sheu-shen-Tci (f %) S& jjjij! IE p. 12-13. 



S 7c Bill 


This Generalissimo was born at Hwai-chow fff j'\] during 
the reign of the Sung Emperor Chih-tsung ^ f f ^ in the Yuan 
yeu period (ytflfc)' 1086-1094 A.D. All we know about his parents 
is that his father had a posthumous title Ho-kia-tsai-siang ^ % 
^ /f:| and that his mother belonged to the Ch'en p|f. On the 
day of his birth, there appeared on the high-road some thirty 
children with flags together with a new-born babe : the children 
explained that they were escorting "Yih-luh-fuh-sing" — #fr f| J| 
"The lucky star for all the way." The child's complexion was 
black but he was endowed with all the talents of mind. 

Tang was three years a Commissioner of Inquiry and he 
proved to be above corruption : he meeted out justice to all, be 

they relatives or absolute strangers, and his skill in unravelling 
cases passed as miraculous. It passed into a popular saying that 
if the Black Judge put a man in prison, it was deserved, and it 
became the theme of popular songs that nor man nor devil for 
sheer awe could look at him without tears. 

He died aged 97 and Yuh-ti 3£ ^ canonized him. As 
symbol he carries a mace. He is a punisher of evil-doers and a 
rewarder of the good. (1) 

(1) Sheu-shen-M (T #) ^1 jfi'j' IE P- 13. 

Fig. 181 

Generalissimo Tang, 

Fig. 182 

Generalissimo Shih. 



5 7C Bit 


The seventh year of the Chow Emperor Silen-wang Jgij If 
jE, 833 B.C., is given as the year of Skill's birth; and the day 
was the Pure Brightness Festival — Ts'ing ming $ H^, the 6th 
of April. That day the dragons had great rejoicings and there 
was rain and wind. He was born in Siang-k'i ^g ^ of a father 
called Wen fu^^ and a Han fft mother. He bore the name 
of Shen-ynh jffi ^ (Divine rearing). Possessed of a pleasing 
exterior, he went oft" to study under Yin-yil ffr -^f at Kivan-chung 

Later on, he built a house south of Mt. Mei ,/j| pj and stayed 
there. During the seventh month, an alarming draught set in: 
the harvest was in jeopardy and the peasants came to consult 
Shih in their distress. So he took a bath, changed his clothes 
(ritual proceedings before worship), burned incense and made 
prostrations : the people joined with him in worship. The prayers 
were heard and rain fell. But during the prayer, Shih was suddenly 
changed into an immortal : only his garments marked the 
place where he had stood. New arrivals now announced that 
they had met Shih escorted by over a hundred men with flags 
riding eastwards. He bade them thank the villagers on his 
behalf and explain that Yuh-ti 3£ ^ had entrusted him with an 
urgent mission. 

Shang-ti J^ ^f put him at the head of the Thunder 
Department with the office of rewarding the good and punishing 
the evil (1). 

(1) Sheu-shcn-li iT #)# # IE P- 13-14. 



m • 7c Biii 


At the foot of the famous T'ai-shan fj| |I| in Shan-tung 
there dwelt one Fu-ho-kung @|J ^ Q and his wife Ngeu yang 
shi $fc % J£. They had a son T'ai yii ^ ^. He was born 
in the first month of the year Jen-yin f£ ^ during the reign of 
the T'ang Emperor Hi-tsung j§ ^ ^, 882 A.D. (]) The child 
proved to be of an energetic, choleric temperament. 

Grown up, he stood for the examinations and failed. So 
he shut himself up in his room and studied intensely. One night 
as he sat studying, one of the Demon-foxes— one with nine tails 
— taking the shape of a man, opened the door and wished to 
start a conversation with Fu-ying but the scholar would not take 
any notice of the intruder. 

Next day, the fox came again, and now knocked at the 
window but the student did not make any sign of attention. Now 
the fox became a monstrous giant with eyes as big as bells, jaws 
like a dragon's and a mouth like a tiger's: this monster entered 
the room, sat upon a tea-table and began to fire its eyes and 
nose with a fire brand which it had in its hands. The recluse, 
without looking up from his books, told the monster that he 
knew quite well he was the same as yesterday's intruder but 
that it did not frighten him in the least. With that he flung his 
brush for red writing at the Demon-fox full in the face. The 
monster on the instant turned into a woman, thanked him and 
said : "You are a high dignitary : Ynh-ti 3£ i^f shortly will put 

(1) Whole account is from Sheu-shen-l'i (~f ^) p. 14 but the account 
there wrongly gives the date as 9th year of Kien-fu period 1& ffi; it was 
the 2nd of Chung-hwo >|" 5fD - Kien-fu was only 7 years long. 

Fig. 183 

Fou-yng Yuen-choai. 
Generalissimo Fu-ying. 


you in charge of all spirits and hobgoblins in this region. May 
I hope that you will pardon my faults?" "From now on, " 
replied the recluse, "you must turn over a new leaf and practice 

In fact, Yuh-ti's edict soon was published summoning 
Generalissimo Fu-ying and conferring on him the dignity of 
regent and notable of the district. 




Wj yt fift 


The information about this personage is more than usually 
vague. His lather was Yang, his mother was Sii f£ and he was 
born in one of Keng-shcn $£ Ef3 (cyclic number) years under 
the Han dynasty fj| on the 16th. of the 10th. month. He was 
given the name Piao ^, "Little Tiger/' because immediately 
before his birth a tiger was seen running up — and the peasants 
began to cry out, "Tiger ! Tiger !" 

Becoming a mandarin under the Han Emperors, he 
obtained the pardon of a robber whom the Emperor was about 
to put to death, and once when local mandarins tried to 
corrupt him with a gift of a thousand silver pieces, he went 
on with his resolution. Whilst he exercised his functions at 
Yang Chow ^ j\\, he distinguished himself for courage and 
perfect integrity. 

Shang-ti J^ ^ granted him the post of terrestrial spirit 
and attached to him is a military officer. He has authority 
both over this world and the world beyond: — 1) in the other 
world, over the demons of the five directions and over the ten 
rulers in Hades, 2) in our world, he is charged with the rewar- 
ding of good and evil actions and further has a power of restraint 
over the demons of the sea and of mountains. On the whole, 
as a reward for his own observance of law, he has been elevated 
to the position of a formidable potentate. (1) 

(1) Sheu-shcn-U (T #) 45 4§ IE. P- 15, 

Fig. 184 

Yang-yuen-choai et son officier militaire. 
Generalissimo Yang and his military attendant. 



|wj 7C BitJ 

GENERALISSIMO KAO (a faultless healer). 

Kao-yuan-shwai ^ y£ ffi was a reincarnation of T'ai-yih- 
chen jen jk. Zl M A (Article XII) in the womb of one Mei, #|, 
wife of Kao-ch'un-kung "j^ ^ ^. For the date of his birth we 
have only the very indefinite data, the Kia-tsze day (^ -^ first 
of a cycle) of the 11th month of a Kia-isze year. At birth he 
dazzled everybody with the fire-like brilliancy of his body, so 
his parents threw him into the River f£ as an evil genius. But 
Yoh-shi-t'ien-tsim ||| gjfj ^ l|r (The Deva Medicine-Man) saved 
him and took him as a disciple. The boy grew up to be very 
beautiful and his master called him Yuan j| and taught him all 
kinds of wonderful spells. 

Kao-yuan could cure monkeys, serpents, tigers of their 
maladies or wounds. For instance he cured a tiger of a bad 
throat by the application of the bone of a serpent. 

He had a remedy for every evil. Once he came upon an 
immortal who had a suppurating sore on his back : he got the 
wound to close by the application of the dew from the flowers 
called K'iiing-hwa $J| ;f£ (flowers of the immortals) . This particular 
immortal, bent on founding out a weak spot in Kao's art, told 
him of an old cypress that was withered and dead and challenged 
him to revive it. "Quite easy", "said Kao, and sprinkling it with 
Kwan-yin |^ ^ lustral water, he made the tree live again. Then 
the immortal proposed to him the difficult task of providing 
issue for a childless grandee : but Kao had a nostrum in his 
pharmocopeia for that too. "All very well," said the immortal, 
"but you doctors only heal one evil by causing another. The 
simples you use would have produced seeds and from the seeds 


new plants might have come: you injure the plants to cure men". 
So Kao could only sigh, "True ! One cannot save hoth at once" : 
he thanked the immortal for this reminder and gave him a 
recipe for resuscitating people. 

As Kao had on his voyages done an immense amount of 
good, Yuh-ti 3£ ^ conferred on him the title: Generalissimo 
Kao, avatar come from the nine skies. (1) His statue is to be 
found in the temples of the god of healing or in those where 
Buddists worship Yoh-shi-fnh H ftjjj f$, The Healing Buddha. 
(Baishajyaguru : see Chin. Sup. Vol. VI p. 115) 

(1) Sheu-shen-li (T #) •-» jj$ It p. 16-17. 

Fir. 485 

Kao-yuen-choai le medecin transcendant. 
Generalissimo Kao, the peerless doctor. 

Fiff. 186 

Tchang-yuen-choai le protecteur contre la variole. 
Generalissimo Chang, who protects from smallpox. 



3R it £f|i 


Chang's father had the personal name Kwei J^ and his 
mother was a Hwang fa. He was born at Ning-hai Sf£ $J in 
Shan-tung in 703 A.D., i.e. the year Kwei-mao ^ JJ|] during the 
reign of the Empress Wu-heu |£ fc, on the Kwei-mao ^f JJ[1 dav 
of the 8th moon. 

Chang had a very handsome face with splendid beard and 
resembled Wang-ling-kwan (1) BE It TlT- He was possessed of 
a clear intelligence and passed the official examinations, becoming 
a prefect of the second class. He was greatly esteemed for his 
consistent justice. During his administration many students 
took their degrees for he was never severe towards. them. When 
the surrounding districts were ravaged by an epidemic, bis was 
spared and the residents built a temple and honoured him there. 

Yiih-ti 3£ 'n^ knowing him to be exactly just and of a 
piercing intelligence, conferred on him the title, "Speedy Avenger 
of Injustice," and the office of watching epidemics. Also he was 
to guard infants against small pox. (2) 

Chang is one of the male divinities of the small pox and 
his statue is to be found in very many temples. 

(1) See Article XIX above. 

(2) Sheu-shen-lci (T :#) JS ipME P- 2 0. 

Cf. Vol. X (below; : Chap. V Art. Ill p. 7 57 sqq. 




(Thunder Department) (T) C 

* m tf 7c BrtJ 

In the prefecture of Ku-yung-chow "£ % )\\ on Mt. Shen-lei 
1$ m \ti (Mountain of the Spirit Thunder) the thunder-god was 
wont to come forth out of the mountain-side at the 10th moon : 
during summer and autumn he hid under the form of a hen. A 
poor wood-cutter of Yung-chow named Sin-hing ^ JS. and with 
the added name of Chen-yii U ^ used to cut fire-wood for his 
mother. One day in the eighth month while cutting faggots on 
Mt. Shen-lei, he had the good fortune to come across five hens 
roosting in the depths of a cave. He took them off home to 
his mother. She put four of them into a crate-hasket, covering 
them over with clothes, but she kept the other out to kill it and 
cook it for a meal. But this hen spoke and said to her: 
"Beware, I am the Spirit of the Thunder: you cannot eat me: 
beware of doing me any harm." The old lady was quite unmoved 
by this prodigy : thereupon the lightning flashed and she was 
dashed to the ground. 

Siu-hing came back again, this time with fire-wood and 
wine and found his poor old mother lying lifeless on the floor. 
He could not understand why his mother, so good an old woman, 
should have been killed or how she could have died so suddenly. 
Just then the wind howled, the thunder rolled and from amid 
the thunder-clouds the outraged divinity was about to kill 
Sin-hing. But instead, in consideration of Sin's filial piety, a 
Taoist adept appeared and said, "If 1 have killed your mother, 
the reason is that she was about to kill me. Do not bear me 
any grudge : I am the Thunder-spirit and I now ask your pardon." 
Thereupon, he gave Sin 12 iron-pills. Sin swallowed them and 
was completely metamorphosed. His mouth became a beak; he 


grew wings : in one hand he held a hammer and in the other a 
wedge : beneath his feet were five drums. His first task was 
to save his mother. That done, he disappeared. 

The sovereign of the heavens canonized him for his great 
filial piety with the title : Generalissimo of the star Keu, member 
of the Thunder Department. Along with Pih-ijuan-shwai (Article 
XXX) he rules over the demons of the five directions. (]) 

Chang's statue along with of Pih-yuan-shwai is often to 
be seen in temples of Chen-wu jpl "p^, e.g. in that at T'ai-hing. 

This spirit seems to be merely a doublet of Lei-kung f[f ^ 
(the Thunder Divinity) and has no historical prototype. 

(1) Sheu-shenl'i (T #) ^ 1$ IE P- 21. 



M 7c Biti 

T'ai-yih-chen-jen js: & 0L \ received from Yuh-ti 3£ ^ 
an order to send one of the six Ting ~f spirits (see Art. XIII) 
to earth to be born from a Yen woman JfS : for the child there 
was to be no father. The birth took place on the seventh day 
of the fifth month in the year Ping-wu p*j ^ of the Emperor 
Sin -^ of the Slicing j*j dynasty. (1) The name of the child was 

From earl}' youth, he was remarkable for courage and 
daring and his strength was such that he could knock over nine 
oxen. So in a series of Herculean toils, he killed a demon south 
of Shui-ying 7k. |fj, tamed a horse of fire north of Yin-shan [5J; 
|lj, killed another demon at Ye-hwo-miao jgf fc )f$\, took captive 
a Demon-fox at Tse-hii-leu % |g j^, and destroyed a Demon- 
snake of the Kiang yX- 

Yuh-ti rewarded his bravery by confiding to him the 
administration of the Northern lands and honoured him with 
the title of "Fierce, Impetuous Generalissimo T'ieh." (2) The 
whole stoiw seems to be lacking historical basis. 

(1) There were three Emperors of this name in the dynasty: Siao 
Siu (1373-1352 B.C.); Lin Sin (1225-1219 B.C.) and the infamous Chow Sin 
fcf ^S, the last of the dynasty (1154-1122 B.C.). The year Ping-wu does 
not fall in either of the first reigns: it falls on the year 1155 B.C. and 
perhaps this may be meant as the first year of Chow-sin: if not, the dating 
is purely at random. 

(2) Shcushcn-ki (T #) 45 ^ IE P- 23. 

Fig. 187 

Generalissimo T'ieh. 

Fie. 488 


/! / 


Generalissimo K'ang, 



B 7c Brfi 


An incarnation of the dragon-horse took for its father 
Kwang-yeu |ff j§ and for its mother a Km ^: these people dwelt 
on the banks of the Hwang-ho (Yellow River) jlr */pJ. The 
birth of the child, K'ang, took place on the wholly mythical date 
of the 9th year of the Emperor Jen-hwang £ Jl during the 
period Yen-teh 4£ ^. 

K'ang was remarkable for his compassion : he never did 
harm to any living being. Worms and ants were the objects of 
his tender care. His one great pleasure was to drink a pure 
noble wine. 

One day he saw a bird of prey swoop on a little heron 
and carry it off but the little bird fell to earth again with a 
broken wing. So K'ang took it home, bandaged its wing and 
nursed it: the heron grew big and one day brought in its beak a 
stem of the herb of immortality which it presented to its 

On the lips of the people, he was spoken of as the 
"beneficent" for he cured all sicknesses. So the Celestial 
Monarch confirmed the title formally as: "Beneficent and sage 
generalissimo," and conferred on him supervision of the four 
cardinal points. He is depicted as carrying a club in his right 
hand and a golden axe in his left. (1) 

(1) Sheu-shen-M (T # ) 4i # IE P- 23. 




MUNG YUAN SH1VA1 (She Merciful) ( I ) IS 

j& 7C A|I 

Somewhere in the fourth century B. C. a temple was built 
in the kingdom of Chao ^ in honour of Mung with the title of 
Tsiang-kiiin $f jpf, Marshal. The actual dates of his life are 
uncertain. He was born on the 12th of the 8th moon in the Wu 
sheng year ^ ^ of a mother Kwok ||S and a father Ki-hao i|>/ff. 
The child's name was Mung-shan jfc (1|. He died in the 12th 
moon of the Keng-ch'en year j|? j||. 

Being very sympathetic, it happened that as mandarin 
his thoughts turned to his old mother and to the mothers of so 
many prisoners in his charge. These poor fellows, he reflected, 
could not go to see their mothers. So he visited his prisons 
and told the immates how their state actually conflicted with 
filial piety. The prisoners wept and asked for the favour of 
being allowed to revisit their mothers. Then Mung made a pro- 
posal to them. "If you all promise to be back here by the fifth 
of the first moon, I will let you go home on the twenty-fifth of 
the twelfth moon." The prisoners agreed, were let go and kept 
their word. It became an annual custom. 

So Mung began to meditate how these fellows were really 
good men : they had filial piety, they were trustworthy : they were 
even just in as much as they came back to pay their debt to 
human justice. So one day he said to them all, "If I set you 
all at liberty, will you conduct yourself well for the future?" 
"We have been bad in the past," they answered him, "but we 
swear that from now on, we will lead blameless lives." "Then," 
said the mandarin, "I set you all free." The prisoners said, 
"That is all very well for us, but what about you yourself?" 
"Oh, I have only one life and if I lose it in saving hundreds of 

Fig. 189 

Generalissimo Meng. 


others, what harm does it do?" The convicts protested that 
they had merited death by their crimes and could not consent to 
purchase their liberty at the cost of his innocent life, seeing too 
that they owed him many favours. Mung-shan, now in tears, 
said, "Be assured, I have my own ways of managing." So the 
prisoners were freed from their chains, did obeisance to him 
and left. 

The superior mandarin, one T'eng Fj|£, informed of what 
had happened sent for Mung shan, had him punished and censur- 
ed him : "I order you to get back the 800 prisoners whom you have 
set at liberty: if one solitary prisoner is missing, you will forfeit 
your life." Mung-shan replied, "I am ready to die, but I cannot 
get back those eight-hundred.'' Then he seized a lance and 
tried to pierce himself: three times he tried and each time an 
invisible power struck it aside and only the lance-handle met his 
breast. Mung now heard someone calling him out of doors: on 
going out, he found a chariot waiting him ready harnessed, and 
a whole escort with flags. 

Mung went off and paid his respects to Yuli-ti 3£ ^ who 
canonized him as : Magnificent Generalissimo of the Kingdom 
of Chao. The heavenly sovereign placed two of the immortal's 
flowers on his hat and made him a present of a lance decorated 
with a yellow dragon. The higher mandarin sent a memorial 
on the event to the prince of Chao and this latter had a temple 
built in honour of Mung and gave him the title of Marshal. (1) 

(1) Sheu-shen-M (T #) 4t •$ IE P- 25.26. 



M 'X 1% ffl 7c ftd 

GENERALISSIMO T'lEN (of the Wind and Fire Ministry) 

This generalissimo (or apparently this group of hrothers) 
had T'ien-tsien EB $| : as father and Tiao-ch'un-hi <J ^ § as 
mother and came from T'ai-ping-kwoh -Jx 2p pg. There were 
in all three brothers, matchless musicians: T'ien-sun-liu EB 1=0 -§3, 
T'ien-lmng-i EB j* H and T'ien-che-piao EB ^ ^, in order of 
seniority. In the period K'ai-yuan $J j£ (713-742 A. D.), the 
T'awgf Emperor Hiien-tsung Jf ]£ ^ took them as his music- 
masters. They were formed for cantatas and dances, and were 
excellent flutists. When they played their magic flutes, the 
clouds stayed in their course across the sky, and the harmony 
of their songs opened the Lah-mei flowers Jjjf( $f :f£ (Chimonan- 
thes Fragrans, a scented flower opening in the depth of winter, 
12th moon). 

The Emperor fell sick and in a dream he saw the three 
brothers playing the Chinese equivalents of mandoline and violin; 
the harmony of their tones charmed him and he awoke cured. 
So he made marquises of the three of them. 

They are in one account credited with the invention of 
the dragon-boats, the once national event in China on the 5th 
of the fifth month (1). The Taoist Grand-Master was engaged 
in staying an epidemic but the demons proved intractable. So he 
consulted the three brothers. T'ien yuan shwai caused a large 
boat named "Shen-cheu" (Spirit-boat) $$ -jfj- to be constructed. 
This was to be manned by a million spirits under orders to keep 
beating drums. The din enticed the demons out from the town 

(1) Sheu-slien-li (T 3£) JS # IE 1»- 24 - 

Fig. 190 

Les trois freres musiciens. 
The three Brothers Musicians. 


to listen to the concerted sound. T'ien yuan shwai seized them 
and drove them away with the help of the Taoist Master. 

Chang t'ien shi 3j| Ji ftfj (1) recognizing T'ien' s skill and 
craft, gave certain helpers and adressed a memorial to the Emperor 
Hiien-tsung (i.e. Ming-hwang jjf 0^ ^) to inform of these striking 
deeds. The Emperor canonized the brothers with the title of 
marquises. All the members of their family received posthumous 
titles of nobility. (2) 

(1) See Chinese Superst. Vol V p. 648 (Engl. Trans.) for the usual 
traditional explanation of the Dragon-boat festival, connecting it with 
the poet K'uh-yuen Jg j^ B.C. 332-295. 

(2) The great wizard of Taoism, see Article IX above. 


KlU-Ll-HU-SlEN ( I ) 

x m m fiii 


At Sien-yeii-hsicn -flJLl $1 $$-> a sub-prefecture in the district 
Hing-hiva-fu J| ft }{f in Fuh-kien fg ££ there lived one Ho-tung- 
p'an ffi jg ^ij with his wife Lin ffi. She bore nine children of 
whom the eldest was one-eyed and all the others blind. The 
father in despair determined to kill them all. But the mother 
found a man to take them oft' to the mountains towards the 
north-east of Sien-yeu-hsien. There on the mountain of the Nine 
Immortals they devoted themselves to the hermit's life : nearby 
is a lake and on its shores they concocted the elixir. Succeeding 
in their essay, they mounted each a red carp and disappeared: 
hence the lake is called Kiu-li-hu \ $j| $JJ, the Nine carp Lake. 
By the lake is a temple where great crowds gather every year 
to burn incense in honour of the nine brothers. 

The poet Hwang-mung-liang lif -^ j^ has commemorated 
the legend in verse. (1) Having described the wondrous land- 
scape that is the setting of the story, he tells how the nine carps 
became nine dragons and raised the immortals to the heavens. 

The "SJlen-sien-t'ung-'kien , ' jjiifi -fjjj y| |K fixes a date for 
these events and adds picturesque details. According to this 
account, the King of Min p] (Fuh-kien) W%-chu 4tt gg, in the 
days of the Han emperor Wu-ti 7H "jf^ ^ (140 — 86 B.C.), had a 
glorious palace built for himself amid the Niao-shih (Bird-rock) 
Mountains ,% ^ |||, in a site of enchanting beauty. On the 
ninth of the ninth in the year Ping-ch'en pj H (125 B.C.), the 
king gave a great banquet. Someone told how the brothers Ho 
were engaged in making their pills of immortality on the borders 
of the lake below. The king immediately sent for them, 

(1) Sheu-shen-M (T #) 4£ # IE P- 58. 


The brothers were asked whence they came and what 
their powers were. They answered that after a feast on Mt. 
Sil-mi (Su-meru 2j| "/!$ lil), they had gone off with T'ai-kih-chen- 
jen ^c ^ H A and each had now a special gift of magic. So 
they displayed their talents for the Emperor. 

The first made a pass on the air and immediately a golden 
cup rose from the royal table and plunged down into the lake. 
The second pointed at one of the mountains : its rocky sides 
split and lotus flowers sprang forth. The third flew up against 
the face of a precipice, wrote letters there and came down the 
air again. The fourth by a breath, stirred a wind that whirled 
up rocks like a swarm of flies : on a sudden, the wind ceased and 
the rocks returned to their mountain caves. The fifth uprooted 
a fir and changed it to a gilded dragon which first flew aloft 
and then retired into a cave : with a bamboo branch, the genius 
made as if to fish it out and stirring up the dragon changed him 
back to a fir-tree again. The sixth with a hand-pass made a 
neighbouring mountain move off to the east and then called a 
mountain from the north to shift into the vacant site. 

When the turn came for the seventh, he announced that 
as the brothers had already made the elixir, they were now about 
to depart. So he turned to the lake, and nine carps came at 
his summons. The nine brothers rode on the backs of the fish 
up into the skies. 

From that on, the lake was known as the Nine Carp Lake 
and the mountain as that of the Nine Immortals. Now king 
Wu-chu 4H£ ^ and his court on seeing this ascension of the genii 
had flung themselves on their knees and the fifth of the brothers 
let fall to earth the bamboo with which he had played the 
dragon : so the king treasured it and on the facing mountain 
Niao-shih ,% ^ [i| had a ferrace Ling-siao ^ f^ j| built to be a 
monument of these wonders. On the edge of the lake he had 
another temple built where sacrifice was offered annually to the 
Nine Immortals. (1) 

(1) Shen-sien-Vung-lcien jjjtj] \\\\ M f£ Bk. VII, Art 7 p. S - Art. 8 p. 1. 


\\ AXG-Slll-CH'Er* (T) 

I # s 

~\Yang's real name was Wang-wen-k'ing T: # \ Shi-ch'en 
was an official title (Majordomo). He was born in the time of 
the Sung dynasty (X1,XII,XIII centuries A.D.). (1) He was 
noted for a most unusual cast of features. 

When grown to manhood, he took to travelling all over 
the country. One day he met a magician who gave him a charm 
for setting the winds in movement and casting lightning-bolts. 
This magician was the Taoist on whom the Sung Emperor 
Hwui-tsung % $ & (1101-1126 A.D.) conferred the title of 
"Taoist Adept of the Palace;" this important personage often 
wished to make gifts to Wang but our worthy always refused. 

Once upon a time, the district of Yang-chow % )\\ suffered 
a long period of drought. Wang was begged to command the 
rain. So he took his sword, filled his mouth with water (as 
Chinese laundrymen and others still do) and sprayed it like rain 
in the air, saying, "Let the Yellow River rise three feet!" Three 
davs after, the mandarin of Yang-chow reported to the Emperor 
that a yellow rain had just fallen in his district. 

In the epoch T a- yuan (no such name ^ 7c in the usual 
period lists: ^c || was 1107-1111 A.D.) a temple was built for 
Wang in the town of Kien-ch'ang-fu ^ || /ft- It became famous 
for prodigies and was crowded with worshippers. (1) 

(1) Sheu-shen-li (T #) i$ /# IE P- 5 9. 

Fig. 191 

Wang-che-tch'en fait monter l'eau du fleuve Jeune. 
Wang-ski-ch'en raises a flood in the Yellow River. 

LU-SHAN k'wang-feu-sien-sheng 193 


I Jj I I A 4 


This teacher's name was K'wang-shuh [S $| and his 
personal name Eiun-pHng ^ 2p. with a second style Feu JfL. He 
was horn in the south of the Kingdom of Ch'u j§|. When he 
was still quite young- he conceived the idea of living as a recluse 
and, refusing the offices presented by the Emperor Wu ^ 3£ 
(1122 — 1115 B.C.), he retired to the south of Mt. Nan-chang 
rff |»y[ UJ P asr - which flowed the Tiger Stream JF^ y||. Here he 
built a hut of straw furnished barely with a couch and some 
books. Here he was visited by Yung-ch'eng-kung ^ ^ ^ 
disguised as a young man who taught him the secret of the 

This K'wang-shuh || $jf was the second eldest of five 
brothers: the eldest was K'wang-s uh |I| f£, named Tsze-hi ^- ^. 
The three younger brothers dwelt some time at Lu-shan in 
company with K'wang-shuh g $j|. 

In the reign of K'ang-wang jf§ 3£, 1078-1052 B.C., K'wang- 
shuh professed himself a disciple of Lao-lsze 3£ ^ and even 
received from his lips all sorts of magic recipes. When Lao-tsze 
left the court to retire to Poh 3g, Kwang-shuh reentered CJrou 
$£ where he arrived during the reign of Chao-wang HS 3: (1052- 
1001 B.C.). There he taught his brothers the doctrine of immor- 
tality. About a thousand years later, the Han Emperor Wu-H 
(140-86 B.C.) returning from the Sacred Hill of the South, Mt. 
Heng Hj dj in Hunan, passed by P'ang-li (the Po-yang lake) % 
j||, and found there a temple of K'wang-suh |a| (ft to whom he 
paid his respects. Thence he made for the Siin-yang-kiang ^ f^ 
$L- The noise of the drums on the imperial bark annoyed the 



river-dragon who made such a disturbance of the waters that 
the hoat was on the point of being swamped. Then there 
appeared an archer who walked over the waters and came to the 
imperial boat. Very respectfully he told the sovereign that he 
had been sent by his brother Suh f^ to protect the imperial 
person as the emperor had just been praying in his temple. 
Then he shot some arrows into the dragon, killed it and disap- 
peared, having restored calm to the waters. The emperor was 
puzzled and asked his Taoist-adepts to explain. "We know," 
said they, "that K'wang-suh has a younger brother K'wang-shu 
([MM) an d trus * s probably the Immortal who has appeared to 

So the Emperor canonized him as : Nan-kih-ta-ming-hung 
if $& ^ 0)3 £: Most Illustrious Duke of the South Pole (or 
perhaps here "Extremity" as the Emperor had been visiting the 
Sacred Peak of the South). 

K'wang-shuh had such marvellous powers as enabled him 
to command dragons and ride tigers. The five marshals of 
epidemics had to submit to him and take his orders. The Emperor 
Wu-ti had a temple built in his honour on the bank of the 
Tiger River. Later on, the prefect of Kiu-yin f§ ||§, by name 
Hwan-i ;jg ffi, had it transferred to a site near the pass of Mt. 

This genius has jurisdiction over the Ministry of epidemics 
and protects those who supplicate him in time of drought, floods 
or plagues. (1) 

(1) Sheu-shen-lci (T* #) 4S # IE p. 59. Shen-sien-t'ung-l:icn jptji \\\\ iflj 
Bk. 4, Art. 9 p, 5: Bk. 5 Art. 1, p. 1; Bk. 8 Art. 6 p. 2. 

Fig. 192 

Liu-chan K'oang-fou-sien-cheng et son frere aine K'oang-sou. 

The teacher Kio'ang-feu of Lii-shan, and his eldest brother Kw'ang-snh, 

Fig. 193 

Hoang-sien-che le dessinateur de talismans. 
Hwang the Immortal, writer of magic charms. 



M fill SB 


As Hwang was the seventh among his brothers, he was 
usually known as ji -fc; ^V Hwang ts'ih-kung: Hwang the Seventh. 
He was born at Shang hang-hsien J^ 5^ JH in Fuh-kien in the 
prefecture of Kiang Chow fji $\. 

He was by profession a magician, a writer of charms: he 
exorcised devils with whips. Legend tells that the countryside was 
suffering great annoyance from a mountain-demon and a praeter- 
natural stone. Hwang got the better of them with his charms 
and then got into the stone himself and never more came forth. 
That particular rock had something human about its shape, some 
resemblance to Hwang -ts'ih-kung n|r -fc Q. 

At Chung -liao-ch'ang fH 5=? ^ a temple was erected in his 
honour on a rock called Shih-k'i ^ ^. Afterwards it was removed 
to the south of Shang -hang-hsien. J^ ^ f|. (1) 

(1) Sheu-shen Id (T & ) 48 # IE P- 60. 




ac m * w k 


This title is that posthumously conferred on Yen-chen-k'ing 

fff if| Jjifip who lived in the time of the T'ang Emperor Teh-tsung 
J§ ^ ^ (780-805 A.D.) 

The Emperor used Yen as a trusty officer to oppose the 
rebel Li-hi-lieh ^ % $[{ in 783 A.D. (Kwei-hai H^). Before Yen 
set out against the rebel, his family entertained him to dinner at 
Cheng -loh-p'o -^ |lj| f$. In his cups, he revealed that he had 
once upon a time met a Taoist adept by name T'ao-pah-pah |5^J 
A A from whom he had got the pill of immortality: but the 
Taoist had warned him, "In seventy years there will be great 
danger waiting you. I will expect you on the bank of the I-loh 
\f jg. on Mt. Lo-feu $| ffi \[\." Yen confessed that now he felt 
that he was going to his death. 

When Yen arrived at the Eastern capital to exhort the 
rebel to make his submission, this latter had him surrounded by- 
minions who abused him and threatened to butcher him. But 
he remained so unmoved that Li-hi-lieh ^ ^ ^ actually treated 
him with respect. 

The next year, 784 A.D. Li, had himself proclaimed Emperor 
and took the title of Wu-ch'eng "^/j^,. Ten wrote from Ts'ai-chow 
<$£ f\\ a farewell report to the Emperor and Li shortly had him 
strangled. He was 77 years of age at his death and the emperor 
gave him the posthumous title of Wen-chung t£ *, "Distinguished 
and Loyal." Before his death he entrusted his gold belt to an 
imperial envoy and enjoined on him to bury his corpse carefully. 
This the envoy did to the south of Ts'ai-chow ^ >}[\. 

Fig. 194 

Yen Tchen-k'ing, canonist, premier officier du Ministere des Exorcismes du p61e Nord. 
Yen Chen-kHng, canonised, first officer of the Ministry that exorcises the North Pole. 

peh-kih-k'u-sie-yuan 197 

In 787 A.D. (Ting-mao ~f JJ[J), the minister Li-pi(l)^ $£ N 
begged the Emperor to order befitting obsequies for his loyal 
official, Yen-lu-kung fjf <j§. ^ (the honorific title given by the 
Emperor, "Duke of Lu") who had died in the imperial cause. 
The Emperor sent his own son to bring the coffin to the capital. 
The prince got the coffin opened and though it was mouldering, 
the body was intact: hands and feet were flexible, the black hair 
and beard were several feet in length and the hands were so 
resolutely clenched that the tips of the fingers had pierced the 
palms of the hands. So the body was put into a new coffin and 
brought to the capital. The obsequies were performed with all 
the honours due to dukes. He was buried at Peh-shan 4b [JL| 
near Yen-shih-hsien jg ftp J§£. 

Sometime afterwards, a merchant happened to pass by 
Lo-feu-shan ^ ffi \\} and saw two Taoist adepts playing at chess 
under the trees. One of them addressed him and asked him 
where he came from. On learning he was from Loh-yang ^g. [^, 
the Taoist smiled and said he wished to give him a letter for his 
family. Then he wrote a letter and entrusted it to the merchant. 
When the latter had returned to Peh-shan, he gave the letter to 
the custodian of the family tombs and he gave it to Yen's rela- 
tives. They recognized the writing as that of their ancestor: so 
Yew's grave was opened and found empty. 

Yuh'ti canonized the worthy as Peh-kih-k'u-sie-iso-p'an- 
kwan 4b Hm Jfl$ £ f\] i? : First Military Officer of the Ministry 
of Exorcisms of the North Pole. 

After some ten years, a family servant entered a temple 
of the T'ung-teh-si p] i<g ^p at Loh-yang ffc % and found Yen- 
chen-k'ing seated there on the altar of Buddha, clad in a white 
robe. The servant went closer to get a better look at him but 
the figure turned away its face and so kept concealing its fea- 

(1) A.D. 722-89. A famous scholar and statesman. In 756 he became 
councillor of the Emperor Svh-tsung ^ % and remained so for three 
reigns. Later on an ardent Taoist. See Vol, VII p. 46 8. 


tures until finally it left the temple, passed into a garden and 
entered a hut built of two straw cells : into this the servant 
followed. Yen inquired about his relatives, gave the servant 
an ingot of gold for his journey and told him not to divulge 
what had happened. The servant, of course, on his return told 
all : the gold proved to be genuine and was sold. The people of 
the household got their horses and rode off to see for themselves 
but everything had vanished and they found only a fallow land 
covered with high grass. (1) 

(1) Sheu-shen-ki ("p #) # j$ IE P. 61. 

Shen-sien-t'ung-kien jjpji f|I| M gg Bk. 16 Art. 1 p. 8; Art. 3, p 1. 

seh-hoh-t'ung-tsze 199 



In the account of Chili nil (French ed. Vol. XI p. 1028) 
the reader will find how her son as a Crane-spirit carried his 
father off to heaven. Here we are concerned with its appearance 
in the biography of Pao-che-shan-shi '^f |^ jjj|i gjfj (or Chi-kung f^ 
^). (1) Chi Kung disputed with Peh-hoh-tao-jen ^ || f ^ the 
possession of Mt. Ts'ien $£ nj. The Liang Emperor Wu-ti |$& 5^ 
*j$f promised it to the first to get hold of the mountain. The 
crane flew off to take possession, but just as it was about to 
settle on the land, Chi-kung's |& <& staff came whistling through 
the air behind and the crane took fright and flew beyond. The 
staff fell to ground and the site was adjudged to Chi-kung f^^. 

The statue of this White Crane Boy is to be found in 
many Taoist temples and the Fung-shen-yen-yi |jj- ffi ^ j|| gives 
an account of his exploits. He was, according to this, the disci- 
ple of Yuan-shi-t'ien-tsun (Article I) jt jt£ Ji j|r, and together 
they helped the commander in chief of the Chow armies at the 
foundation of the dynasty (1122 B.C.). The White Crane Boy 
distinguished himself in the Hwang-ho-chen jfr fpj (^. When the 
heroine K'iiing siao J§| fj entered the struggle, Yuan ordered his 
disciple to throw into the air his precious jewel, the magic Ju-i 
tU M- (2) In falling it broke the head of K'iung-siao. Pih-siao, 

(1) See above Vol. VII Art. XXII p. 4 57 sqq. Chi-hang (A D.4 2 5-514), 
a famous Buddhist monk. 

(2) A Ju-i is carried by Tss wei-sing in Fig. 359,360 of Vol. XII: see 
also Fig. 131 (above). 

Originally a Buddhist magic jewel, one of the 7 Precious things, 
the Saptnaratna. In China a sceptre, a symbol of Buddhist gods (and in 
Chinese court usage, a token of distinction). Said originally to be an 
instrument for back-scratching. 


?v 1? ner sister, came to avenge her loss: she cast her magic 
scissors in the air in order to kill Yuan. But Pehhoh's Ju-i Hies 
up a second time and colliding with the scissors, makes it crash 
to the ground. Yuan, availing himself of the chance, draws a 
box from his sleeve, flings it into the air and Pth-siao finds her- 
self imprisoned and is killed subsequently. (1) 

(1) Fung-shcn ycn-yi^ jjjijj '0 jfe Bk. 5 Ilwui 51, p. 1. 

Also Chinese Superstitions Vol. XI Art. XI, p. 932 on K'ang-san- 
lu-niang *£ ~ $ jfe where Fig- 262 depicts the battle of m i«! W with 
Na-ch'a, and Fih-siao and her scissors. 

Fig. 195 

Pe-ho-t ong-tse. 

The divining youth Peh-hoh (White Crane:. 

Fig. 196 

Tang-se tsiang-kiun. 
General Yang-sze. 



m m m s 


Yang is one of the generals of the Naga-king, Lung-wang 
(the Dragon-King) f| 3£ and is in charge of the policing of the 
waters. Therefore boatmen and the lumbermen on the rafts 
worship him. 

In several temples in Hai-mcn #| p^ his statue occupies a 
special altar and is much reverenced by the wood-merchants as 
the protector of the rafts of wood. 

His symbols are a dragon, as he controls the rivers and 
watercourses and stills storms, and an axe, symbol of wood- 



CH'lH-lilOH SlEi\ ( I ) 

# m at 


In the year 1009 A.D. (Ki-yen if, !§) during the reign of 
the Sung Emperor Chen-tsung ^ j|| 5^ in the 10th month, a 
high official was ordered to Mt. Mao ^ mj, where Mao-kiiin 
^ ;§" Mao-ying ^ ££ (1) was honoured, to demand from that 
spirit an heir to the empire. Mao-kiiin happened just then to be 
staying at T'ai-shan fj| mj, the Sacred Peak of the East: the god 
of T'ai-shan's, daughter, Pih-hia-yuan-liiin ||. j!| 7^ jg, (2) was 
Mao's wife. So Mao referred the request to the god who in turn 
presented it to Yuh-ti 3£ $fr, the Ruler of Heaven. Yuh-ti was 
just then at this palace of T'ung-ming }j| ^ J$£ and there were 
12 bare-footed Immortals round his throne. Yuh-ti caught one 
of these smiling and pounced on him immediately for the duty 
of reincarnation and office of governing men. 

The Immortal did not want to be reincarnated but Yuh-ti 
insisted and gave him as helps two K'iih (j}J]) spirits, one civil 
("& Wen) and one military (Wu $£). So "Barefoot" had to go, 
greatly regretting his smile. 

On the 5th of the 10th month of 1010 B.C. (Keng-suh 
JH Jf£), an heir was born to the Emperor. He was called Sheu-i 
^ jifc, Benefit received : but for all that, he wept uninterruptedly. 
So the Emperor by proclamation invited any person to supply a 
remedy for stopping tears effectively. A Taoist Adept called Leu 
^ presented himself, touched the little prince's head and said, 
"Don't cry ! It had been better had you not laughed when you 

(1) See Article LIV for the Three Brothers Man. 

(2) See below Vol. XI Art. XXII p. 990 sq. 


were in Yuh-ti's palace. Now, take heart ! Wen Jc'iih -% $\ and 
Wu-k'ilh will give help." The infant ceased crying. 

A month after his birth, there grew up under his cradle a 
shoot of Ts'ing ling-chi f |g, a herb of the Immortals. The 
little prince, from his earliest years, loved to walk bare-foot. (1) 

(1) Shen-sien-t'ung-lcien Jjfr f|]j M $g Bk. 18 Art. 8 p. l. 




fi 7C filfj 


The small town of "White-stone Bridge" in the Wen-chow 
imi ')'\] subprefecture in Cheh-kiang flft yx was the birth-place of 
Wen. Though his family was of the people, his father was a 
scholar with the bachelor's degree. As he had no child, he went 
with his wife Chang-shi ijj| j£, called also Tao-hwui, M M to P ra y 
to Heu-t'o fa ^L (Sovereign Earth) in his temple. 

During the night, his wife in a dream saw a spirit with 
golden armour who held in one hand a large axe and in the other 
a brilliant pearl which he was offering. 'T am", said he, "one of 
the Kiah-shen ^ f$ (1) and Yuh-hwang's marshal. I desire to 
be incarnated in your womb and become a man : will you be my 
mother?" Chang-shi accepted as she was a pure stupid woman 
but her visitant a being full of wisdom and majesty. Then the 
spirit laid his pearl in her womb and she awoke. 

After twelve months, she bore Wen-yuan-shwai: it was 
mid-day of the fifth of the fifth month and the year was 142 A.D., 
i.e. the first year of Han-ngan ^ ^c during the leign of the Han 
Emperor Shun-ti fj| Jlp ^. On bathing the child, his cousin 
exclaimed: "There are 24 charms written on his left side and 
16 on his right and nobody knows the characters." (2) Soon after, 
all these vanished. The mother, because of her dream, called the 
child Hwan Tsz-yvh ^ ^ 31 ; literally, Bracelet — Child-Jade. 

(1) Cf. Che-rh yuenkieh Appendiee. Thence they give the name of 
these six spiiits Taoist. 

(2) See above Vol. Ill (Engl. Ed.) for specimens of the extraordinary 
characters used in charms. 

Fig. 197 

Generalissimo Wen. 



From early youth, Wen displayed a ready talent. At seven, 
he studied the stars; at ten, the classics, histories and astronomy. 
At nineteen, he sat for the examinations and failed. At twenty- 
six, he abandoned literature for arms: and in the military exami- 
nations, he failed afresh. So he reflected sadly that in life he 
could not serve his monarch and his people, but consoled himself 
with the hope that after death he should aid the sovereign by 
destroying evildoers and abuses. He began to think of becoming 
a recluse, and while working over these thoughts, he saw a dra- 
gon which dropped a pearl at his feet : he caught up the pearl 
and swallowed it. The dragon began to dance and twirl before 
him. Wen seized the monster, bent him to a circle and rolled 
its tail round his arm. A change came on him immediately : his 
face went grey, his hair red, his body blue and his total appear- 
ance was terrifying. Thereupon the god of T'ai-shan ifjc y\] 
appointed him as his assistant in governing T'ai-shan, an office 
in which he distinguished himself. 

Yuh-hwang canonized him, at first, as the Grand spirit 
with the Golden Neck; then, later on, as the Marshal, Chief of 
all the spirits, Supervisor of all officials of T'ai-shan. He besto- 
wed on him a bracelet, a flower made of gems and a writing 
securing him free entry and sortie from heaven, allowing him to 
present himself in Yuh-hwang' 's palace to submit petitions in 
urgent cases. 

He is depicted with a precious bracelet in his left and a 
sort of battle-mace T'ieh-kien $§, fgj (an "iron baton", prickly 
mace) in his right. 

Wen is honoured at Wen-chow ^ '}\\. The inhabitants of 
that town by persistent entreaty obtained his investiture with 
honorific titles. (1) In many temples of the god of T'ai-shan, his 
statue also is to be found. A figure very similar to Fig. 197 was 

(1) Shen-shcn-ki «T £) W # IE P- 18-19. He is there entitled. Veu-yeu 
W en-yuan- shwai # JJ6 i& 7C $&•. 


to be seen in a temple in the countryside about 8 li to the north- 
east of Ju-kao. To give him more dignity, two servants and 
a horse were in attendance on him. 



T m m. it; 


The figures of these two genii, often as giants with savage 
expressions on their faces, are to be found as door-guardians in 
many Taoist temples. (1) This Chinese Lynceus and his brother 
of superfine hearing were named Kao-ming ~^j B^j (Piercing View) 
and Kao-kioh ^ Jl (Delicately Sensitive). They came to Chao- 
ko ]|jj ffc and were presented by Fei-lien Jfe jjj| to the Emperor 
Chow f$ (the infamous last member of the Shang dynasty 1154- 
1122 B.C.). The Emperor greatly admired their warlike appear- 
ance and granted them the title of Spirit-Marshals of his army 
Shen-wu-shang-tsiang-kiiln j$i jj£ J^ JJf ||f and had them brought 
to Mung-tsin jg -^ where his commander-in-chief Yuen-hung J^ 
$fc then was. 

Ko Ming's face was blue in tint and his eyes shone like 
lamps: he was very tall : his mouth had a wide gape and showed 
tusk-like teeth. His brother, Ko-Kioh, had a green complexion : 
on his head were two horns : he had a red beard and teeth sharp 
as swords jutted forth from his large mouth. 

Their first adversary was Na-ch'a who was on the side of 
the Chow. Na flung his magic bracelet but Kao-kioh received the 
blow on his head without suffering a scratch. Na then took hold 
of his fiery globe but the brothers discretely withdrew. As all 
means of attack proved ineffectual, a council was held by Yang- 
tsien j§j ff£, Kiang-tsze-ya H ^ ^ and Li-tsing ^5fg to debate a 
method of beating the brother's spells by using the trigrams(see 
upper part of Fig. 199) of Fuh-hi ffi ||, sprinkled with the blood 
of fowl and dog. But of course, it failed when it came to be 

(1) Two gigantic statues at Ch'eng-hwang-miao of T'ai-hing % #&. 


put in practice, for the brothers had heard and seen deliberations 
and preparations alike. The important military factor of surprise 
was lacking. 

So Yang-isien went to Kiang-tsze-ya and told him that he 
wished to take more effective methods against the two. "What 
do you wish to do?" asked Kiang-tsze-ya. "I can't tell you; they 
would hear it all." So Kiang allowed him to go away to execute 
his plan. The brothers of course were quite aware that Yang 
had gone, but he had not said where he was going and any how 
it did not matter. 

Now Yang went away to visit Yuh-ting-chcn-yen Ji ^ jf| 
A "Jade Tripod" (a Taoist adept) in the cave of Kin-hia ^ jg 
M (Cavern of Golden Mist) on Yuh-ls'iien-shan 3£ ^ pj. Being 
asked his advice, the Taoist worthy explained, "These two are 
from Mt. K'i-p'an $£ ^ \[\ : one of them is a peach-tree demon 
and the other a pomegranate-demon : the two trees have active 
roots covering an area of 30 square li. On the Mountain there 
is a temple of Hwang-ti |f $fr called Hien-yuen-miao $f $ft M 
and in it are two clay statues of Ts'ien-li-yen f ^ | and Shun- 
fung-rh ]l|g M % : the peach-tree and the pomegranate-tree having 
become genii have entered these statues and possess them. The 
one can see and the other can hear a thousand li but no farther. 
Let Kiang-tsze-ya know that he must uproot all the roots of those 
two trees, burn them and then break the statues. Then he will 
defeat these demons. But when you tell Kiang, see that demons 
cannot perceive your communication. You must get flags waved 
and gongs and drums beaten all through your army." 

On Yang's return, Kiang asked him how he had fared. "I 
can say nothing," replied Yang. "But I must know what you 
want to do." "Well, first, if you please, 1 will do it, and then 
you will see." Kiang agreed and Yang went to have 2000 red 
flags waved busily in the air and a thousand soldiers to beat 
gongs and drums vigorously. This effectively screened the 
communication to Kiang of the Taoist Worthy's advice. 

Fig. 1^8 

Ts ien-li-yen. Choeti-fong-eul. 
Ts'icn-U-i/en. Shun-fung-euL 


Thereupon Li-tsing ^ tfa with 3000 soldiers marched off 
to K'i-p'an Mountain and destroyed the abode of the demons and 
at the same time Lei-chen-tsze f| J* -^ kept the giants engaged 
by an attack. But the giants were rendered useless, for the flags 
waving as far as the eye could see and the deafening din of gongs 
and drums fuddled their sensitiveness. 

On the following right Yuan-hung J| -£t determined to 
storm Kiang's camp. He sent as an advance-guard Ts'ien-li-yen 
and Shun-fung-rh: but the Chow camp was on the alert expecting 
an attack. Yang tsien and the other officers in the service of 
Wu-wang ^ 3E(the first Chow Emperor 1122-1115 B.C.) outflanked 
the brothers. Kiang-tsze-ya cast his exorcising whip in the air: 
it fell on these two demons and broke their skulls. (1) 

(1) Fungshen-yen-yi $i j$ i§| g| Bk. 8 Hwui 89 p. 9 to Hwui 91 p. 21 




KIANG TSZE YA ( T B) C ( 1 ) 

* * W 

1190-1094 B.C. (? 1210-1120) 

The family name of this hero was Kiang || and his perso- 
nal name was Shang "fpj but since the fief Lii g had been held 
in his family as descendants of a minister of the Emperor Yaoj^ 
(2257 B.C.? Dawn of Chinese history), he was known as Lii 
Shang. He was known by another name T'ai-ku7ig-wang -fc <fe> 
i.e. Grandsire's Hope : this title was given him by Si-peh "gj \fa 
(B.C. 1231-1135), "the Chief of the West", Duke of Chow, the 
virtual founder of the Chow Dynasty (who is known by a post, 
humous title as Wen-wang -*£ 3E as if he had himself been 
Emperor). This Wen-wang discovered in Kiang the counsellor 
whom an ancestor had prophesied would help to establish the 
fortunes of the House of Chow f$. 

Kiang-tsze-ya, at least in legend, passing from the service 
of Chow wang $- 3E to that of the new dynasty Chow JgJ, 
became its most distinguished general. His military successes 
set the Chow in the person of Wu-wang jj£ ^ on the throne : in 
reality, the disaffection of the Shang adherents had much more 
to say to the results. The battle of Mung tsin jg : (The Lord 
of Mung) or Muh-yeh fa Jgf (1122 B.C.) to the south of Wei- 
hwui-fu % $p ffi decided the fate of the Shang. As a result jj£ 
j£ Wu-wang (originally Fah ||) ascended the throne as first of 
the Chow dynasty. He conferred on Kiang-tsze-ya the title of 
"Father and Counsellor" and named him King of Ts'i ^ with 
succession for his children. (2) 

(1) See also Chinese Superstitions: Vol IV, Chapter VIII, Article VII 
p. 428 (English Edition); A magic inscription:for averting devils at sight 
of Kiang 's name. 

(2) Eang-Men-hopien Bk. 2 p. 2, 3. 

Fig. 199 


This is the historic frame into which legend and romances 
have woven a tissue of miraculous happenings and marvellous 
deeds. Only a very short resume can be given here of the con- 
tent of the legends. 

Kiang-tsze-ya was an avatar of Yih-chen — jj|, pupil of 
Yuh-chen-ta-fah-shi 3£ j| ^ fe ftp ; he was born at Hit-ciww ^ 
j'\] near the Eastern Sea. His parents died when he was very 
young and he became a vendor of the bean condiment Tsiang-yeu 
W '/& (1) Dut did not do good business. So he took to slaugh- 
tering cattle: after making a slaughter-house to the east of the 
town Chao-ko ]j$ ffft for some time, he had to give up this trade. 
Then after a voyage to Liao-tung ^ Jf he returned to Tung-yang 
|i % where he married the daughter of one Sz-ma p\ ^. Then 
he went to dwell in Nan-shan j$ \[\ where he spent his time 
fishing. One day he caught a carp and in its belly found a book 
entitled : Ping-ling-ta-yao-luh-pien ft fft -^ |g ^ H, six chapters 
on Military Art. He studied the book for a month and when he 
had grasped the subjet matter, he went on again with his fishing. 
He is famous for his fishing with a straight pin of iron instead 
of a hook (it is said that the fish in admiration of his virtue 
voluntarily impaled themselves) — but his wife remonstrated 
with him on this apparent folly. Kiang pointed out that she did 
not belong to the craft and went on as before. 

Then at last Lao-tsze ^ -^ appeared one day on the other 
bank of the river and reproached him with being ignorant of his 
origin. "Take and eat this pill," said he, and threw into the air 
the Kioh-yuan-tan jj- j£ ft "drug of understanding origin." The 
pill leaving a luminous track in the air, passed through into 
Kiang's stomach. On digesting the pill, he felt that Lao-tsze 
himself was before him and was influencing his ideas. 

"Why", said Lao-tsze, "do you not want to be a mandarin?" 
''What means can I take to attain to that rank?" replied Kiang. 

(1) A paste of "yellow beans" Hf :& with salt which has been ferment- 
ed before use. Kiang is invoked for the success of the culinary process. 
See Vol. IV. p. 428 sqq. 



''Wen-wang ■% 3E has need of a capable man; he will take you 
up. When the time comes, you will find a jade tablet. 1 am 
going myself to look up Wen-wang to settle the business." When 
Lao-tsze had gone, Kiang went home and removed his family, 
including his boy Tsao f|, aged 7, and his 10 year old daughter, 
to Wen-wang' 's country near Si-ki H ibjc (S.W. ot Shen-si) and 
made his home there in Pao-ki-hsien <Jjf |§ $£ at Wci-shui ^ 7^.. 
Three months after that, he caught a fat fish, and inside there was 
a jade tablet with the inscription, "Ki #|£ is predestined to the 
throne, go to his help. Ts'i H shall be thy reward." Ki was a 
name for the descendants of Hwang-ti, and especially for the 
house of Chow. (1) 

Now the hour had come. Wen-wang (i.e. Si-peh) had a 
dream in which he saw a winged bear flying from the south-east 
and settling down beside the palace. Soothsayers explained that 
the expected sage would therefore come from the lands south-east. 
One day, Wen-wang and his court went hunting along the banks 
of the Wei-shui. Coming upon some fisherman, who timidly 
withdrew, he followed and questioned them. They told him of 
an old man farther on who was always fishing by the river and 
singing as he fished: his name was Fei-hiung, Flying Bear ^|,#lf. 
Wen-wang felt he had his man and got people to lead him to this 
"Flying Bear." The old man did not take any notice of this 
great personage's salutation but went on fishing and singing: 
"When the West Wind begins to blow, winter is a-coming in. 
The old year is a-dying and the phoenix has cried to the land of 
Si-k'i W ftj?. Few are they that know me." Wen-wang % JT: 
saluted him ap-ain and now entered into conversation with him : 
at last he took him away with himself in his chariot. It was 
the year Jen-shen ■£ tfi 1129 B.C. and Kiang was then 72 years 
of age (born in 1200 B.C.?). 

(1) Wen-wang was a descendant of Eeutsi fg ^ of the Ki family; 
and the first Chotv emperor jft 3E Wn-wang was Wen's son. 


Before his death, Wen-wang summoned his son Wu-wang 
and bade him pay his respects to Kiang as master and father. 
When the new emperor had ascended the throne, he took Kiang' s 
daughter as the imperial concubine and he conferred the kingdom 
of Ts'i ^ on Kiang and his descendants. It was Tsao jf , Kiang's 
eldest son, who ruled the kingdom while his father remained at 
court with the title of king. The second son Shen H received 
the principality of Fu ~$j\ Kiang retired to his kingdom when 
death drew near and passed away very quietly one day in his 
arm-chair at the age of 105(?). 

The king of Ts'i sent news of his father's death to the 
Emperor Ch'eng-wang ^3E and the Duke Pih Jjl^ was deputed 
by the monarch to go as his representative to Ts'i and offer 
sacrifice to the dead, immolating an ox. But when Kiang was 
encoffined, the coffin seemed no heavier for the body, so Kiang's 
son, the king Tsao, opened the coffin and found nothing beyond the 
hat, clothes and the military treatise belonging to the dead man. 

So the empty coffin was buried at the scene of the great 
victory of Muh-ye tifo ff and the clothes were buried at Pih JJI. 
In Ts'i his son had a mausoleum built and there Kiang received 
the honours of the rites. (1) 

Other legends would have Kiang to be the pupil of Yuan- 
shi-t'ien-tsun yc ji^ Ji M ( see Art 0- After a stay of 40 years in 
the Kwun-lun Mountains j^ -$f with his master, he received the 
order to go to help Wen-wang. Then he tried his hand at many 
things before accomplishing his mission. At the age of 68 he 
took a wife, he became a worker in bamboo, a miller, an eating- 
house keeper, a cattle-dealer, a fortune-teller and from this last 
occupation went into service under Chow-wang £j- jE- Then he 
turned over to Wu-ivang. 

His fights in company with the immortals and the gods 
fill whole volumes of Fung-shen yen yi (The Way to Invest Di- 

1) Sheu-sien-t'ung-Tcien Jg fill M £g Bk. 4 Art 7 p. 1 to Art, 9 p. 5 
Fung shen yen yi Jf jjjfji '0 §| Bk. 2 Hivvi 14 to Hwui 24. 


vinities, i.e. to Confer the Post of Divinity) if ji$ j1& H- Here we 
can only give in outline the famous Canonization of the Shen jffi 
after the Chow JS] victory. It is supposed to have added consi- 
derably to the spirit ranks. 

A tower was built for the ceremony by five genii under 
the supervision of Peh-kien jfa §&. The Decree of Canonization 
was delivered to Kiang-tsze-ya by Yuan shi t'ien tsun as well as a 
list of the spirits and their functions : this list was affixed to the 
supports of the platform. Kiang in helmet and breastplate, 
holding his yellow flag ^ and his exorcising-whip, mounted the 
stage. He had Peh-kien lead before him the souls of all the 
warriors who had fallen in the previous fights, explained Yuan- 
shi-t'ien-tsun's decree and conferred on them the spirit-offices 
they were to hold in the other world. Many of these spirits are 
still reckoned in the Chinese pantheon. (1) 

This explains the power over demons credited to Kiang- 
tsze-ya. He has made them and therefore can unmake. Hence 
the protective spell, "Kiang-tsze-ya is here : there is no reason for 
fear" ; or as in fig. 199 ^;fc&&jH;H^$S^ ,§! Venerable 
Kiang is here, everything is safe (in the sense of "lucky"). He is 
much associated with the P'ah-kun (or eight trigrams) which 
received so much attention from Wen-wang. Often Kiang occu- 
pies the place of honour on a household altar. In many districts 
of Ngan-hivui and Kiang-su pictures of Kiang are pasted up on 
the fifth of the fifth to ward off bad-luck, devils, epidemics. 

As a fact, under the T'ang dynasty, Kiang was a war-god. 
In 731 A.D. the Emperor Hiien-tsung M ~tL %. had temples 
erected in his honour officially in both capitals and in all prefec- 
tures and subprefectures. Ten generals were assigned as his 
court in attendance and Chang-leang $| & (2) as his attached 

(1) Fung-shen-yen-yi Hwui 9 9 Bk. 8. 

(2) Chang-leang, died B.C. 189; had shared in the establishment of 
the Han dynasty and the overthrow of the Ts'ifi somewhat as Kiang in the 
overthrow of Shan a. 


minister. Thus was begun the system of two official temples: a 
"civil" one for Confucius and a "military" one for the god of 
war. Sze-ma Kwang iaj J| -jt protests against Kiang being put 
on a level with the matchless Confucius. Moreover the sages of 
antiquity could make one job of governing and repressing at 
once. (1) 

(1) Wieger; Textes historiques p. 1658. 



= W 


A genealogical table with notes will explain the history 
of these brothers, whose birth place was Hien-yang $ \% (i.e. 
Si-ngan-fu) in Shen-si. 

Great-great-grandfather :(1)?-217 B.C. Mao-mung (Ch'u-ch'eng) 

^ ii ^ $ 

Great-grandfather: (Unknown) 

Grand-father: (2) 249 B.C. Mao-hi^^ (Kung-lun^jfo) 

Parents : Hil (Wife) f{- J£ Mao-tsu (Peh-ying)or Mao-mung 

# m f fi & # if 

Mao-ying (Shuh-shen) Mao-lu (Ki-wei) Mao-chung (Sz-chi) 

#& (M$) *® &m ^n (& &) 

Mao-ying, the eldest of the brothers, was born during the 
reign of the Han Emperor King-ti <gf jp; iff in the fifth year of 
the Chung-yuan cfj /£ period, i.e. 145 B.C., on the third of the 
10th month. When eighteen years of age, he left his parents 

(1) The great-great-grandfather had been a famous scholar of Hicn 
yang. Foreseeing that the Chow JU were toppling- to ruin, he kept out of 
office and devoted himself to alchemy on Mt. Ewa Ijl Mj. In full daylight, 
on the day Keng-tsse (Jp? ^f-) of the 9th in the 30th Year of TsHn-ahi 
hwang-M, he went up to the heavens. 

Shen-sien-t'ung kien jpiji {\\\ M fg Bk. 43 p. 8. 
Tung-sien-chwan p -fill % T l ai-p'ing-lwang-li Bk. 5 p. 5. 
Suh-wen-hien-fung-hao $f ( % jg£ M :# Bk. 241 p. 13. 

(2) The grandfather had been Comptroller for the Ts'in Prince 
Chwang-siang-wang |^|I, the father of Ts'in shilnvang ^ j& Ji (221- 
2 09 B.C ) and real ouster of the Chow dynasty. Mao hi received for his 
service the title of Magnanimous, Sincere Duke. 

Fig. 200 


• • # • • *•••• 
% * 

•••• •• 

• ••• 








San Mao (Tchema en leur honneur). 

Written charm burnt in honour of the Three Princes San Mao. 

Fig. 201 

San Mao. 
The Three Princes San Mao. 



for Mt. Heng »[^ \\}, the Sacred Peak of the North (in Hwun- 
yuen-hsien -}j| ^ jgjf, in Shen-si). There he met Wang-kiiin Jl1&> 
a spiritualized man ; becoming his pupil, he learned how to spiri- 
tualize himself so that he could overcome the law of gravity and the 
need for nutrition. Si-wang-mu (Article VI) gave him the prayer 
that makes the perfect hero. Then having acquired the science 
of perfection, the Tao jjf , he returned home at the age of 49. 

His father now abused him for vagrancy and lack of filial 
piety : the old man took a stick to beat him but it flew in pieces 
of itself. So Mao-ying fled and passed into a wall to hide. 
Shortly he quitted home and went eastward till he settled down 
on Mt. Kil-k'iih fy ^ pj in the kingdom of Wu -^L. In this 
solitude, a spiritualized man gave him a method of self-perfection 
and intrinsic nutrition : so he arrived at full subtility and aerial 
levitation at will. On the death of his parents, he returned to 
Shen-si for the funeral and ceremonies. 

In the fourth year of the period Pen-ski fc %a (i.e. 69 or 
70 B.C.) of the Han Emperor Silen-ti $| la $? on the third of 
the fourth month, a heavenly messenger brought him a message 
and Mao-ying immediately bade farewell to his relatives, and 
announcing that he was going away to Mt. Kii-k'iih, disappeared 
into the clouds. 

His brothers Ku [g and Chung J| were mandarins but 
when they heard of his departure, resigned and followed him to 
Mt. Kii-k'iih. Ying welcomed them and set them to a fast of 
three years as a way to the immortal state : each of them for 
that period lived solitary on a separate peak. So the mountain 
came to be called Mt. Mao or the Peaks of the Three Mao's. It 
is situated 45 li to the south-east of Kii-yung-hsien / pj ^ Jgg in 
the sub-prefecture of Kiang-ning-fu fr ^ ffi (modern Nanking) 
in Kiang-su. (1) 

In 64 B.C. the second year of the period Yuan-k'ang yt 
Jf£, in the 8 th moon, during the reign of Siian-ti, the two younger 

(1) Ming-yih-t'ung-chi (Geography of Ming) B^ — $ft ^ Bk- 6. p. 8 



brothers Ku and Chung mounted on two yellow cranes to the 
heavens. To prayers offered to them on the mountain peaks 
they have always given effect. 

Now Man-ying's old master Wang-kiiin came from T'ai 
Shan, the sacred mountain of Shan-tung, to Mt. Kii-k'iih to pro- 
pose marriage with his niece Yuh-nii (Jade-lady 3£ -£). (1) So 
Man-ying went to T'ai-shan ~fc [Jj to be married and henceforth 
his life was a series of journeyings to and fro between Kii-k'iih 
and T'ai-shan on the back of a white crane. 

In 976 A.D., the Sung Emperor T'ai-isung ^ ^c ^, in his 
very first year, canonized Mao-ying as : ''Loyal Prince, Protector 
of the Holy" 1fc M <$k %=>• By this name Mao-ying is known in 
the Shen-shen-ki |g iffy |£. 

In the district about Hivo-chow fp '}{], on the borders of 
Nanking (the town Hwo-chow is in Ngan-hwui), there is on the 
left bank of the Kiang yx, a celebrated mountain standing boldly 
up with three peaks. It is the Bird Cage Mt. Ki-lung-shan |{£ 
HI |Xl - Here a temple to San-Mao = ^, the Three Maos, has 
been constructed on the almost precipitous peak, so difficult of 
access that one has to climb up one passage with the help of an 
iron chain let into the rock at either end; it is or was a fairly 
popular pilgrimage. 

(1) i.e. Pih-hia-yuan-Miin M $%. 7Z. %£ (See Vol. VI Art. XXII p. 990 sq.) 

Fig. 202 

Kin-k'iue-chang-ti et Yu-k'iu£-chang-ti. 
Kin-k'iieh Shang-ti and Yuh-k'ueh Shang-ti. 



&m ± % spit 

The Annals of the Ming relate that at the time of the 
Five Dynasties (907-960 A.D.), Chi-cheng £p |fand Chi-ngoh £p 
|g, sons of Sii-wen f£ $g, led their armies south and restored 
peace to Fuh-chow fg )<\] in Fuh-kien. The heads of families 
and the elders erected statues and made offerings before them 
in token of gratitude. 

An emperor of the Sung dynasty canonized them as 
"heroes," i.e. in the second rank, superior to that of "immortal" 
or "genius" f|lj. The Ming Emperor Ch'eng Tsu Bfj J$ f| (1403- 
1425 A.D. ) when ill had recourse to them and was cured : in 
gratitude he conferred on them the title of Ti-hiiln ^ ;§" Imperial 
Sovereigns. One was "of the Golden Palace" (^ $)|) and the 
other "of the Palace of Jade" (3£ ^). 

Then the Ming Emperors Ying-tsung ^ ^ (1436-1450 
A.D.) and Hien-Tsung |g ifc (1465-1488 A.D.) honoured them as 
\- ^, Supreme Rulers. 

In 1488, in the reign of Hiao Tsung ^ <£, the Ministry 
of Rites deprived them of this title as an abuse and cut down 
the sacrifices in their honour. 




The five genii known by this name have been the theme 
of many Chinese paintings or drawings, and Chinese arts have 
exercised their ingenuity to secure fresh original treatment. 
Their images are often exposed for the sake of art rather than 
for worship. Yet they are genii of whom we read in the Records 
of Divinities and Genii, the Shen-sien-t'ung-kien $$ f[jj jg f§£. 
According to this, they would be among the first of human 
beings on the earth, or rather they are the spirits of the five 
elements : metal, wood, water, fire and earth. 

1. The spirit of Metal ^ is the famous Wang-mu 3E # or 
Kin-mu 4&^; she was born on the Kwun-lun Mountains J^-$fli|, 
born of "Tin" flfS and "Yang" %. the two principles. At 
birth, her hair was bunched in a top-knot on her head, she had 
tiger-teeth, a great necklace with jade pendants fell upon a sort 
of apron of mulberry-leaves (Cf. Si-wang-mii, Article VI above 
p. 489). 

2. The Wood-spirit is Muh-kung ^.Q, god of the Immortals. 
He was born of primal air in the country of Wei-ling, to the 
East. He made himself garments of green leaves and hawthorn 
leaves. (Cf. Tung-wang-kung ^ 3E &, Article VI, p. 488) 

3. The Water-spirit is Shui-tsing-tsze Tfc $|ff -jr. He was 
born, a very handsome person, at Ts'ang-lang ^ft| in the North. 
He made himself garments of the bark of ebony. 

4. The Fire-Spirit. Ch'ih-tsinh-tsze (see Vol. X Fig. 236) 
appeared first at Shih-t'ang-chan ;g" $g- [Jj in the South. He issued 
from "yiri" and "yang" and looked like a man made of fire. He 

Fie. 203 

Les quatre Patrons de la Vieillesse (Seccmde maniere de les representer). 
The Four Patrons of Longevity (Another manner of representing them). 

Fig. 204 

Fig. 205 

Fie 206 



made himself garments of red leaves. He had come down from 
a star as a streak of light. 

5. The Earth-Spirit is Hwang-lao (the Yellow Ancient) 
j£ %. He was produced by humidity and warmth and suddenly 
appeared in the middle regions. (1) 

Other authors give the Ancients the following names : 

Shih-pah-Jiung (King-tsich) -f A ^ (0; Ip) 
Ku-chih-kung $R fll & 
Ling-k'ung-tsze ^? ^ • = jr 
Fuh-yuu-shen || f ^ 
Hiug-sien (2) -g- filj 

It is usual to depict only four Ancients, called Sze-lao pt| 
%. Wang-mu is left out. (See Vol. XIII fig. 4, for an apparition 
of these five elders to Confucius). (3) 

(1) (Slien-sicn-long-lcien Bk. I Art. 1) 

(2) (Si-yeu-U M M IE Ewui 64 p. 15). 

(3) In fig. 205 the butterfly $% Tieh is a punning allusion to Jg Tieh 
"80-70 years of age". 


Some Immortals. Better Known or More in Honour 

1. KWAN CH'ENG -TSZE H $ =? 

Kwang-ch'eng-tsze, one of the first to be numbered among 
the Immortals, dwelt in a cavern hollowed out in Mt. K'ung-t'ung 
fli§ |l||p]. The Emperor Hwan-ti jif $? went to take lessons from 
him and learn the secret of immortality. (1) 

2- HWANG CH'U-PING (M) % ^j ^ 

Hwang-ch'u-pivg was born at Tan-h'i j*\ $* in the kingdom 
of H (modern Shen-si). At the age of fifteen as he was herding 
sheep, he was carried off by a Taoist adept to Kin-hiva-shan £3$> 
[1| where he spent more than forty years in a grotto heedless of 
his family. His elder brother had been ever looking for him 
and one day meeting a very famous Taoist, he asked him whether 
he knew of his brother, living or dead. "At King-hwa-shan, there 
is a shepherd Hwang-ch'u-pivg. It must be your brother." 

The elder brother found him by the Taoist 's guidance. 
The first question was, "What has happened to your sheep?" 
"They are east of the mountain," answered Ch'u-ping. Only 
white rocks were visible but at a word from their "herdsman" 
they turned into thousands of sheep. "Oh, so you have become 
a 'genius'; may I too learn that learning?"— "Wish and you will 
attain." So the elder brother quitted home and became his 
junior's disciple. So he secured the gift of immortality. Ch'u-p'ing 
then took the name of Ch'ih-sung-tsze ff: $< ^f- and his elder 
brother Ch'u-k'i ■%] ^£ took the name Lupan ^ 3jj£. (2) 

(1) T'ai-p'ing-kwang-li ;fc *p ^ |£ Bk. I p, 5. 
Sien-fuh-yuan -fill $7 H Bk. 4 p. 3. 

(2) T'ai-p'ing-Jcivang-l-i ;fc ^ M IE Bk. 7 p. 1 - 2 Sien-fuh-yuan-lci {(I( 
$ @ Bk. 4 p. 13. 



This genius's real name was Chan-chi-hwo jjj| ^ fp : he 
was a hermit on Mt. Kwei-ki -fr fj| [lj. Having being a celebrated 
scholar with the doctor's degree and having been in office, he 
came back to his family as usual on an occasion of mourning 
and then renounced public life in order to live in solitude. 

As strong with the wine-cup as with the pen, he could 
drink three bushels (?) and not be drunk. As a result of a 
special form of nutrition, he could roll in the snow without 
feeling the cold and could submerge himself in water without 
drowning. He crossed lakes and rivers in comfort, carousing and 
singing, by simply spreading his mat on the water and embarking 
on it. 

When the time came, a crane came down from the skies: 
he mounted its back and disappeared in the heavens. (1) He 
lived in the time of the T'ang Emperor Su-Tsung J| ^ ^ (756- 
773 A.D.) 

4. CHANti-LAO ^ % (2) 

Chan-lao was from Luh-IIoh-hsien ^ & J|£ in Yang-chow 

5. MEH-TSZE M ^ 

Meh-tsze was a high dignitary in the kingdom of Sung ?fc. 
His real name was Tih |§ but when he had written the famous 
book that goes by the name of Meh-tsze, (3) he was ever after called 
by that name. When war broke out between Sungife and Ch'u 
$&, Kung-shu-pan Q $j| ^, a Chinese Daedalus (See Lu-pan: 
"Chinese Superstitions" Vol. XI, p. 1031, French Edition), made 

(1) T'ai-p'ing-kwangli 5k ^P H IE Bk. 2 7 p. 7 Sien-fuh-yuan {\\\ # 

Bk. 4 p. 2 0. 

(2) T'ai-p'ing-lcivang-Jci „ ,, ,. ,, Bk, 17 p. 1. 

(3) The historical Meh-tih lived somewhere between the 5th and 4th 
centuries B. C. His doctrine is summed up as t g "Universal Love." 


special aerial ladders for scaling the enemy's Avails. Now dlih- 
tsze made a special journey of seven days and seven nights to 
beg him to withdraw the aid afforded to an unjust war by his 
special talents. 

At the age of 82. Meh-tsze retired to Mt. Chow-tih |g) %fc 
|Jj where he became an immortal. (1) 

6 YE- J EN if A 

The Wild Man. 

He was a disciple of Koh-hung ;§| $fc, a famous Taoist of 
the fourth century, also known as Pao-pu-tsze fy ■%[■ ^-. His 
master before passing away to the life of the immortals, had left 
some of the elixir pills hidden in a stone pillar on Mt. Lo-feu $£ 
: ff. |Jj. The "Wild Man" got hold of one, swallowed it and 
became a terrestrial immortal. Travellers crossing Mt. Lo-feu 
by night saw a man wearing no clothes but covered with long 
hair all over his body: this Wild Man spent his life roaming 
over the mountain singing joyous songs. Taoism honours him 
as a genius. (2) 

7. CHANG-LIANG §g & 

The historical personage who died in 189 or 187 B.C. is 
famous for his part in assisting the llan dynasty against the 
Ts'in. We need only here note that he has become one of the 
Taoist Immortals. 

8. CHANG SAN-FUNG 3g = ^ 

This Taoist was possessor of a "Comucopiae" Tsii-pao-pen 
M 31? ^ an d so was deified as Protecting Spirit of Riches. 

His name was CMng-Kiun-shih ^| 21 ^f, or Chang Ts'iien- 
yih ijji ijs — ; he was dubbed Chang the Filthy Chang "Lah-tah" 

(1) T'ai p'ingl-icangli js. ^ M. IE Bk. 5 p. l. 2. 

(2) Sien-fuh-yuan {\\\ # ® Bk. 4 p. 5. 


3H iH £§• His native place was Kwang-ning-hsien in Kin-chen-fu 
of the Province of Fung-t'ien (Liao-tung). Sometimes he was 
called Yuan Yuan-tsze ytyt-f. Temples in his honour are to be 
found in Shen-si, Yun-nan, Ngan-hwui and in most of the 
provinces. Actually he lived under the first Ming Emperor, 
Hung Wu gt jf£, 1368 — 1399. He then lived in the temple 
Ying-siang-Jcwan jQl f^ ||| to the north-east of Ying-chow-fu in 

Cf. Ying-chow-fu-chi £jf )<\] }ff j£ K. 11 p. 14 - 16 

Yun-nan-t'ung-chi H f|f jj§, ^5 K. 91 p. 2,3 

Shen-si i'ung chi K ® il ^ K. 65, p. 52, 53 

Ts'ing-yih-t'ung-chi fjif — $£ j±-; K. 44 p. 7 

Note : The Sien-fuh-yuan f[|j f^jj gj provides illustrations 
of the usual statues or carving that depict these genii in the 




The Visual Grouping of "SAINTS" in Taoist Temples 

To those wishing to identify Taoist statues, it will he 
useful to know the three groups of "Saints" which are honoured 
in the greater Taoist temples. 


I. Wu Tsu 3£ fil, the Five Ancestors. 

II. Ts'ih Chen Jfc jjt, the Seven Heroes. 

III. Shih-Pah ta shi -f- Ajzffi the Eighteen Grand Masters. 

I. WU-TSU 3£ fft 


1° Wan Hsiuenp'u {Tung-hwa-ti-hiun) ^.^^(M^^^) 157 A. D. 
2° Chang Li-kHuan {Cheng-yang-tsze) ft 8| jf$ ( J£ R§ ^f ) 295 
3° Lit Yen(Tung-pin)(T'un-yang-tsze) gf^(i$^) ($$ 11^)817 
4° Liu Ts'ao (Hai-chan-tsze) flj % {% j§ + ) 911 

5° Wang Chih (Chung-yang-tsze) Jg (fi p§ + ) 1192 

II. TS'IH CHKN -t £ 


(Disciples of the fifth ancestor: Wang Chih). 

1° Ma Yu(Tan-yang-tsze) ,f| &(#R§^) +1183 

2° Ta??. Ch'a-toan(Ch'ang-chan-tsze) ^^^C-ftj^^f ) + 1175 

3° Lift Ch'u-hsiuan (Clrang sheng tsze) flj^5(ft^+) + 1203 

4° A''m C/i'm ki (Ch'ang ch'wcn-tsze) Jt^^(^#+) + 1227 

5° IVa> ( # Ch'u-yih (Yii-yang tsze) 3Eit — (SH + ) -4- 1222 

6° Ho Ta-t'ung (Hwang-ning-tsze) U^j&iM^^) + 1212 

7° Sww Pw-ewZ (Ts'ing-tsing-san-jen) M^Z.(ffitftffcA) + H82 



III. SHIH PAH TA SHI + A * fifi 




















isciples of the fourth Hero Kiu, 

Yin Ts'ing-hwo (Chi-p'ing) 
Sung Bing-yun (Teh-faug) 
Li Chen-chang (Chi-chang) 
Chao Tao-hien (Pao-yuan) 
Sung Tao ngan (T'ai yuan) 
Hia Chi-cheng {Sheu-yih) 
Wang Chi-ming 
Sun Chi-kien (T'ai-su) 
Yii Chi-ko (Kwang fan) 
Chang Chi su (Chung-hwo) 
Chen Chi-siu (Kwang-kiao) 
Kiih Chi-yuen (Pao-puh) 
Mung Chi-wen (Fu-hwa) 
Chang Chi-yuan 
K'i Chi-yuan (Chi-ts'ing) 
Ho Chi-ts'ing (Ming-chen) 
Yang Chi-tsing 
Pan Teh-chung 

Ch'ang-ch'un In-ft^f) 

4 1227 


4 1251 


4- 1247 


+ 1256 


4- 1221 



4- 1255 




+ 1255 


4- 1268 




4 1261 




4- 1255 



4 1256 

-Cf. Tao-tsang M &Vol. 75, 76. 

Ki fu t'ung-chi (Kwang-sii) f&ffij&ifc(-%&) K. 178, p. 94-95.